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Laurence Mee Centre for Society and the Sea


Advancing understanding of the resilience of social-ecological systems by connecting communities, values, policy and places

Hastings workshop

The Laurence Mee Centre for Society and the Sea (LMC) is a vibrant research and innovation centre at SAMS and its main pillar of social science, arts and humanities, and social-ecological systems research. Researchers at the LMC draw on a broad range of social-ecological fields, including policy and governance; environmental, ecological and energy economics; human geography; environmental psychology; ethnography and arts; and social-ecological networks and systems science. The Centre links social studies to the broad range of marine natural sciences in which SAMS has an outstanding reputation. LMC was founded by the late Professor Laurence Mee shortly before his death on 13 August 2014.

The LMC works right across the spectrum of social-ecological research and across sectors such as energy, nature conservation, fisheries and aquaculture. This enables us to engage in a unique way with the complex issues of environmental management, planning and governance of the marine and coastal environment. Our interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral approach directly influences both how we develop innovative theories and frameworks for understanding the relationships between society and the sea, and how we deliver the evidence that decision-makers need to enhance sustainable environmental management.

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Our vision

 Advancing understanding of the resilience of social-ecological systems by connecting communities, values, policy and places - Bringing long-term, sustainable benefits to communities

Hastings workshop

 Our strategic vision is to become a leading marine social-ecological research hub within Europe, with a thriving interdisciplinary culture, an emphasis on mixed-method approaches and strong links to communities. LMC has a special place in Scotland and the UK: the Centre works right across the spectrum of social-ecological research and across sectors such as energy, nature conservation, fisheries and aquaculture. This enables us to engage in a unique way with the complex issues of environmental management, planning and governance of the marine and coastal environment. Our interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral approach directly influences both how we develop innovative theories and frameworks for understanding the relationships between society and the sea, and how we deliver the evidence that decision-makers need to enhance sustainable environmental management.

The increasing demands our society puts on our seas are reflected in increased competition for marine space and resources. The rapid growth of the blue economy in sectors like energy, aquaculture, seabed mining and tourism, leads to real questions about its environmental, social-economic, cultural and policy implications. For instance, how is the social and cultural capital of communities affected by these rapid changes? What are the economic implications of different development strategies? How are different ecosystem services affected? How do we deal with uncertainty about the ecological implications of developments? How do we deal with incommensurable values and conflicting interests, such as trade-offs between local cultural heritage and national economic priorities? How can policy makers and planners reconcile the many different and potentially incompatible policy objectives for different marine sectors?

We believe that answering these challenges involves stepping out of the academic ivory tower. Researchers at LMC are passionate about community engagement, echoing the University of the Highland and Islands’ (UHI) strategic vision of having a “transformational impact on the development and prospects of the region, its people and communities”. Our social research is not about extracting data. It is about working with and within communities, and developing better understanding focused on bringing long-term, sustainable benefits to the communities themselves. For example, we work with local communities, fishermen and conservationists to find solutions to managing protected areas that support biodiversity in a way that respects tangible and intangible cultural heritage. We bring together decision-makers, stakeholders and experts to develop scenarios that integrate economic, socio-cultural and ecological data to consider long-term, sustainable adaptation to changes in the environment and translate these into practical action.

The LMC vision and research extends well beyond Scotland. With our international partners, we work on topics such as community-based protected areas in the Solomon Islands, developing a renewable energy plan for the Seychelles, or the social impacts of new approaches to aquaculture across Europe.

Finally, while our vision and focus is clearly marine, ultimately much of our research is about understanding people, their societies, cultures and institutions. Clearly, key understanding and insights often transcend particular ecosystems and biomes, or the environmental field altogether. Understanding both terrestrial environmental sciences and social and health services can provide marine social-ecological researchers with valuable insights and new approaches around environmental management or, more broadly, topics such as management of public goods, stakeholder engagement and policy appraisal. Vice versa, we continually consider the relevance of our theories and methods to broader academic and stakeholder audiences.



Our strategic research focus follows three main threads:

  1. resilient communities
  2. ecosystem services
  3. policy and governance

While each of these threads has a different research emphasis, they are interlinked by a range of cross cutting topics. All three threads are anchored in the overarching framework of understanding provided by the integrative social-ecological principles of the Ecosystem Approach and the need for adaptive management of our natural resources.

LMC research structure

Resilient communities

This thread investigates the social and cultural capital and the resilience of maritime communities, with an emphasis on remote and peripheral communities. Examples of research topics include the implications of top down versus bottom up approaches to nature conservation, marine cultural values at the arts/science interface, the role of local agents for change in renewable energy development in small island communities, community engagement within marine spatial planning and renewable energy developments, social ‘licence’ for industries to operate within a community, and social entrepreneurship and innovation. In all our research, the identification of the local context is a critical starting point for understanding impacts, transitions and change.


Ecosystem services

This thread focuses on bridging the natural and social sciences to understand the pathways between ecosystems and biodiversity, the services they provide, and the benefits to human well-being that these services generate in economic and broader non-money terms. Taking a whole systems perspective, we consider the impacts of environmental change on the social system, and how responses by society subsequently affect the ecosystems of the sea. Example topics include the valuation of flood defence services, the shared and cultural ecosystem service values of marine protected areas, the importance of deliberation for assessing and valuing ecosystem services, trade-off analyses in ecosystem services around fisheries, and advancing new valuation methodologies for cultural ecosystem services.


Policy and governance

This thread considers the interactions between different marine sectors, including: renewable energy, aquaculture, fisheries and conservation. We consider synergies and trade-offs between these different uses, and the policy and institutional context of planning the seas. We investigate how marine policy and planning can balance short vs long term objectives and govern the cumulative social and environmental impacts of change across sectors to achieve sustainable development. This thread also focuses on developing new mixed method approaches for project and policy evaluation. Rooting economic impact analysis in ecological economics and policy analysis will reduce the gap between aggregate quantitative methods and local and non-monetary approaches, thus providing more nuanced and realistic results relevant to policymakers and communities alike.

MERIKA: Marine Energy Research Innovation and Knowledge Accelerator - linking all 3 areas

MERIKA is an EU FP7 funded project which seeks to establish a marine energy research and innovation hub in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.  In collaboration with two other University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI) partners (Environmental Research Institute and Lews Castle College) as well as seven European scientific institutions, this project will focus on building research capacity, upgrading infrastructure and reinforcing international collaboration with stakeholders from across the marine energy sector (



LMC staff contribute to a wide range of teaching at SAMS including undergraduate, postgraduate and continued professional development.  Examples of topics taught by LMC staff include: ecosystem services and environmental valuation; energy economics; global, regional and local marine policy including marine spatial planning; understanding the socio-historical and cultural contexts of, and communicating with, communities; and social science research methods. 

Courses/modules which we currently teach include:

BSc (Hons) Marine Science

  • Year 2 - Marine Resources : DPSWR framework, environmental economics, ecosystem services, marine policy, marine spatial planning
  • Year 3 - Fisheries Ecology: high level policy & law, IUU fisheries, socio-economics of fishing
  • Year 4 - Marine Modelling: ecosystem-based management
  • Year 4 - Polar Seas: Arctic governance
  • Year 4 - Science Communication

MSc Ecosystem-Based Management of Marine Systems

  • Management, Policy and Planning: high level policy & law, rapid policy network mapping, communication and facilitation, marine planning
  • Advanced Modelling: ecosystem-based management

Industrial Doctoral Centre for Offshore Renewable Energy

  • Marine Renewables and the Environment: ecosystem-based management, EIA
  • Marine Renewables and Society: high level policy & law, social science research methods, ecosystem services, communication and facilitation, marine planning

Continued Professional Development

  • Ecosystem Based Management using Ecopath with Ecosim
  • Marine Policy Masterclass

The LMC team also undertake supervision and mentoring for undergraduate, masters and PhD students inside and outside of SAMS.


Consultancy services

LMC staff provide a wide range of social and social-ecological research services across marine sectors, such as energy, fisheries, conservation, and aquaculture, and broader marine planning, underpinned by cutting-edge science.

We apply an interdisciplinary and  comprehensive suite of qualitative, quantitative and economic methods to work with local communities, stakeholder groups, and the wider public to consider perceptions, values, attitudes, and beliefs around policies, projects and the environment.

We integrate social and ecological approaches and bring together stakeholder and expert knowledge.

Key services we provide include

  • Quantitative social surveys and psychometric surveys
  • Qualitative social research, including interviews and focus groups
  • Participatory and deliberative research methods, including:

o    Workshop facilitation and facilitation of public and stakeholder consultations
o    Stakeholder analysis
o    Participatory mapping/GIS
o    Deliberative monetary valuation and participatory budgeting
o    Participatory multi-criteria analysis and scenario development
o    Citizens’ juries
o    Delphi approaches
o    Customised participatory research designs

  • Economic valuation, impact analysis and policy/project appraisal, including

o    Valuation of ecosystem services
o    Cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis
o    Contingent valuation and choice experiments
o    Integration of monetary, deliberative and non-monetary methods

  • Ecosystem modeling
  • Ecosystem based management and application of Ecosystems Approaches
  • Integrated social-ecological and ecological-economic approaches, combining social and economic research tools above with ecological modelling to help evaluating (potential) policy and project impacts across different scenarios and sectors.

Services are delivered through SAMS Research Services Limited (SRSL), which provides an extensive range of consultancy including environmental impact assessments, consent support for marine projects including renewable energy installations, fish and marine mammal surveys, underwater noise surveys, seabed mapping, water quality and microbiological analysis and monitoring, and vessel and equipment hire.



Working papers

Click here for an overview of working papers published by the LMC.


Publications and exhibitions by LMC staff and students

In Press
  • Alexander, K., Kenter, J.O., Brennan, R. (in press). Marine Stewardship. In: Plieninger, T., Bieling, C. (eds). The Science and Practice of Landscape Stewardship. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kenter, J.O. (in press). Deliberative Monetary Valuation. In: Spash, C. (ed). Routledge Handbook of Ecological Economics. Routledge, London.


  • Kenter, J.O. (2016). Deliberative and non-monetary valuation. In: Potschin, M., Haines-Young, R., Fish, R., Turner, R.K. (eds). Routledge Handbook of Ecosystem Services. Routledge, London.
  • Scott, B.E., Irvine, K.N., Byg, A., Gubbins, M., Kafas, A., Kenter, J., MacDonald, A., O’Hara Murray, R., Potts, T., Slater, AM., Tweddle, J.F., Wright, K., Davies, I.M. (2016). The Cooperative Participatory Evaluation of Renewable Technologies on Ecosystem Services (CORPORATES). Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science, Vol 7, No 01.
  • Jones, L., Norton, L., Austin, Z., Browne, A.L., Donovan, D., Emmett, B.A., Grabowski, Z.J., Howard, D.C., Jones, J.P.G., Kenter, J.O., Manley, W., Morris, C., Robinson, D.A., Short, C., Siriwardena, G.M., Stevens, C.J., Storkey, J., Waters, R.D. & Willis, G.F. (2016) Stocks and flows of natural and human-derived capital in ecosystem services. Land Use Policy, 52, 151–162.
  • Bull, J.W., Jobstvogt, N., Böhnke-Henrichs, A., Mascarenhas, A., Sitas, N., Baulcomb, C., Lambini, C.K., Rawlins, M., Baral, H., Zähringer, J., Carter-Silk, E., Balzan, M.V., Kenter, J.O., Häyhä, T., Petz, K. & Koss, R. (2016) Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats: A SWOT analysis of the ecosystem services framework. Ecosystem Services, 17, 99–111.
  • Kenter, J.O. (2015) Valuing ecosystem services: what’s the value? [book review]. Ecology, 96, 2852–2853.


  • Alexander, K. A., P. Kershaw, P. Cooper, A. J. Gilbert, J. M. Hall-Spencer, J.J. Heymans, A. Kannen, H. J. Los, T. O'Higgins, C. O'Mahony, P. Tett, T. A.,Troost and J. Van Beusekom. 2015. Challenges of achieving Good Environmental Status in the Northeast Atlantic. Ecology and Society 20 (1): 49. [online] URL:
  • Alexander, K.A., T.P. Potts, S. Freeman, D. Israel, J. Johansen, D. Kletou, M. Meland, D. Pecorino, C. Rebours, M. Shorten, D.L. Angel  (2015) The implications of Aquaculture Policy and Regulation for the Development of Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture in Europe.  Aquaculture, Available online 13 March 2015
  • Gilbert A, Alexander K, Sardá R, Brazinskaite R, Fischer C, Gee K, Jessopp M, Kershaw P, Los H, Morla DM, O'Mahony C, Pihlajamäki M, Rees S, Varjopuro R. 2015. Marine Spatial Planning and Good Environmental Status: A Perspective on Spatial and Temporal Dimensions. Ecology and Society 20 (1): 64. [online]
  • Kenter, J.O. & Fazey, I.R. (2015) Conservation, Culture, Kids and Cash Crops in the Solomon Islands. Conflicts in Conservation: Navigating Towards Solutions (eds S.M. Redpath, R.J. Guitierrez, K.A. Wood & J.C. Young) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Kenter, J.O., O'Brien, L., Hockley, N., Ravenscroft, N., Fazey, I., Irvine, K.N., Reed, M.S., Christie, M., Brady, E., Bryce, R., Church, A., Cooper, N., Davies, A., Evely, A., Everard, M., Fish, R., Fisher, J.A., Jobstvogt, N., Molloy, C., Orchard-Webb, J., Ranger, S., Ryan, M., Watson, V., Williams, S. (2015). What are shared and social values of ecosystems? Ecological Economics 111, 86-89.
  • Mee, L. Cooper, P. Kannen, A., Gilbert, A and O’Higgins, T. 2015. Sustaining Europe’s seas as coupled social ecological systems. Ecology and Society 20 (1): 1. [online]
  • Potts T., O’Higgins T., Brennan R., Cinnirella S., Steiner Brandt U., Suárez de Vivero J.L., van Beusekom, J., Troost T., Paltriguera L., Gunduz Hosgor, A. (2015) Detecting critical choke points for achieving Good Environmental Status. Ecology and Society 20 (1):29. [online]
  • Reed, M.S., Kenter, J.O. (2015) Valuing the Dark Peak: A Deliberative Approach to Payments for Peatland Ecosystem Services. Moors for the Future / Peak District National Park, Edale. 10.13140/RG.2.1.3399.1200/1
  • Rennie F., Billing S.L. (2015) Changing community perception of sustainable rural development in Scotland. Journal of Rural and Community Development 15 (2) 35-46
  • Tett, P., K. Black, R. Brennan, E. Cook and K. Davidson (2015). Sustainable Mariculture at high Latitudes. Chapter 6 in 'Coastal Zones: Solutions for the 21st Century'. J. Baztan, O. Chouinard, B. Jorgensen, P. Tett, J.-P. Vanderlinden and L. Vasseur, eds. Elsevier.
  • Tett, P. and L. Mee (2015). Scenarios explored with Delphi. Chapter 7 in 'Coastal zones ecosystem services: From science to values and decision making.' R. K. Turner and M. Schaafsma, eds. Springer., pp. 127-144.


  • Al Kalbani, M., Price, M.F. Abahussain, A, Ahmed, M and O’Higgins, T. 2014. Vulnerability Assessment of Environmental and Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar,Sultanate of Oman.  Water 6 3118-3135.
  • Albon, S., Turner, R.K., Watson, Kenter, J.O., Mee, L., et al. (2014) UK National Ecosystem Assessment follow on phase, synthesis report. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • Alexander KA, Gatward I, Parker A, Black K, Boardman A, Potts T, Thomson E. 2014. An Assessment of the Benefits to Scotland of Aquaculture. Marine Scotland.
  • Alexander KA, Heymans JJ, Magill S, Tomczak M, Holmes S, Wilding TA (2014) Investigating the recent decline in gadoid stocks in the west of Scotland shelf ecosystem using a food-web model. ICES Journal of Marine Science
  • Black KD. 2014. Review of Councils Preliminary assessments of compliance for 2013 results for Te Pangu, Clay Point, Otanerau and Forsyth Bay, Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand, for Marlborough District Council, SRSL 00989_P0657_002, 4 pages.
  • Brennan R. (2014). What lies beneath: probing the cultural depths of nature conservation conflict in the Outer Hebrides. A photo-text presentation.The Island Review
  • Church, A., Fish, R., Haines-Young, R., Mourator, S., Tratalos, J., Stapleton, L., Willis, C., Coates, P., Gibbons, S., Leyshon, C., Potschin, M., Ravenscroft, N., Sanchis-Guarner, R., Winter, M., Kenter, J.O. (2014) UK National Ecosystem Assessment follow-on phase. Work Package Report 5:  Cultural Ecosystem Services and Indicators. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • Cinnirella S., Sardà R., Suárez de Vivero J. L., Brennan R., Barausse A., Icely J., Luisetti T., March D., Murciano C., Newton A., O’Higgins T., Palmeri L., Palmieri M. G., Raux P., Rees S., Albaigés J., Pirrone N. & K. Turner. 2014. Steps towards a shared governance response for achieving Good Environmental Status in the Mediterranean Sea. Ecology and Society 19 (4): 47 [onine]
  • Goulding, I. Stobberup, K. O’Higgins, T.   2014 Potential economic impact of achieving GENS in the Black Sea. Ecology and Society 19 (3)
  • Graziano M, Gillingham K. 2014. Spatial patterns of solar photovoltaic system adoption: the influence of neighbors and the built environment. Journal of Economic Geography. doi: 10.1093/jeg/lbu036
  • Graziano, M., Gillingham, K. (2014) Spatial patterns of solar photovoltaic system adoption: the influence of neighbors and the built environment. Journal of Economic Geography, doi: 10.1093/jeg/lbu036.
  • Heymans, J. J., M. Coll, et al. (2014). "Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach." PLoS ONE 9(4): e95845.             
  • Hurrel S. and Brennan R. (2014). Clyde Reflections film premiere screening at Centre for Contemporary Arts (CCA) Glasgow 11 September 2014.
  • Hurrel S. and Brennan R. (2014). Clyde Reflections: a film and audio-visual installation. In: Imagining Natural Scotland commissioned publication.
  • Hurrel S. and Brennan R. (2014). Clyde Reflections: a film and audio-visual installation. 
  • Hurrel S. and Brennan R. (2014). North Sea Hitch at Timespan, Helmsdale 5-29 July 2014
  • Hurrel S. and Brennan R. (2014). Sea Change at Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh November 2013-January 2014 
  • Janssen R, Arciniegas G, Alexander KA (2014) Decision support tools for collaborative marine spatial planning: identifying potential sites for tidal energy devices around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland.  Journal of Environmental Planning and Management http://dx.doi.org10.1080/09640568.2014.887561
  • Jobstvogt, N., Hanley, N., Hynes, S., Kenter, J.O., Witte, U. (2014). Twenty Thousand Sterling Under the Sea: Estimating the value of protecting deep-sea biodiversity. Ecological Economics 97, 10-19.
  • Jobstvogt, N., Watson, V., Kenter, J.O. (2014). Looking below the surface: The cultural ecosystem services values of marine protected areas. Ecosystem Services 10, 97-110.
  • Jones A.C., Mead A., Kaiser M.J., Austen M.C.V., Adrian A.W., Auchterlonie N.A., Black K.D., Blow L.R., Bury C., Brown J.H., Burnell G.A., Connolly E., Dingwall A., Derrick S., Eno N.C., Gautier D.J.H., Green K.A., Gubbins M., Hart P.R., Holmyard J.M., Immink A.J., Jarrad D.L., Katoh E., Langley J.C.R., Lee D. O’C., LeVay L., Leftwich C.P., Mitchell M., Moore A.P., Murray A.G., McLaren E.M.R., Norbury H., Parker D., Parry S.O., Purchase D., Rahman A., Sanver F., Siggs M., Simpson S.D., Slaski R.J., Smith K., Syvret M. LeQ., Tibbott C., Thomas P.C., Turnbull J., Whiteley R., Whittles M., Wilcockson M.J., Wilson J., Dicks L.V., & Sutherland W.J. (2014) Prioritisation of knowledge-needs for sustainable aquaculture: a national and global perspective. Fish and Fisheries,
  • Kenter, J.O., Reed, M. S., Everard, M., Irvine, K.N., O'Brien, E., Molloy, C., Bryce, R., Brady, E., Christie, M., Church, A., Collins, T., Cooper, N., Davies, A., Edwards, D., Evely, A., Fazey, I., Goto, R., Hockley, N., Jobstvogt, N., Orchard-Webb, J., Ravenscroft, N., Ryan, M., Watson, V. (2014) Shared, plural and cultural values: A handbook for decision-makers. UK National Ecosystem Assessment follow-on phase. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • Kenter, J.O., Reed, M. S., Irvine, K.N., O'Brien, E., Brady, E., Bryce, R., Christie, M., Church, A., Cooper, N., Davies, A., Hockley, N., Fazey, I., Jobstvogt, N., Molloy, C., Orchard-Webb, J., Ravenscroft, N., Ryan, M., Watson, V. (2014) UK National Ecosystem Assessment follow-on phase. Work Package Report 6: Shared, Plural and Cultural Values of Ecosystems. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
  • Kenter, J.O., Reed, M.S. (2014). Taking account of shared and cultural values of ecosystem services. LWEC Policy and Practice Note 11.
  • Mabon, L, Shackley, S, Blackford, JC, Stahl, H and Miller, A (2014) Local perceptions of the QICS experimental offshore CO2 release: Results from social science research. Intl Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 1366: doi:10.106/j.ijggc.2014.10.022
  • O'Higgins, T.G. and Gilbert A.J. 2013.  Embedding ecosystem services into the Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Illustrated by eutrophication in the North Sea. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 140 146-152
  • O’Higgins, T., Farmer, A., Daskalov, G., Knudsen, S. and Mee, L. 2014. Achieving good environmental status in the Black Sea: Scale mismatches in environmental management. Ecology and Society 19 (3): 54. [online]
  • O’Higgins, T.  Cooper, P., Roth, E., Newton, A., Farmer, A., Goulding, I. and Tett, P. 2014 Temporal constraints on ecosystem management: Definitions and examples from Europe’s regional seas.  Ecology and Society 19 (4): 46. [onine]
  • Parent J., M. Graziano, X. Yang, 2014. The potential of using forest residue to offset coal use in co-fired coal power plants in the eastern United States. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 7: 99-105.
  • Raymond, C.M., Kenter, J.O., Plieninger, T., Turner, N., Alexander, K. (2014). Comparing instrumental and deliberative paradigms which underpin the assessment of social values for cultural ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 107, 145-156.
  • Reed, M.S., Kenter, J.O. (2014) Valuing the Dark Peak: A Deliberative Approach to Payments for Peatland Ecosystem Services. Moors for the Future / Peak District National Park, Edale.
  • Sarda, R., O’Higgins, T., Cormier, R., Diedrich, A. and Tintore, J. (2014) A proposed ecosystem-based management system for marine waters: linking the theory of environmental policy to the practice of environmental management. Ecology and Society 19 (4): 51. [online]
  • Tomczak, M. T., Heymans J.J., et al. (2013). "Ecological Network Indicators of Ecosystem Status and Change in the Baltic Sea." PLoS ONE 8(10): e75439.
  • Waite, W.E., Graziano, M. (2014). Mapping Photovoltaic Systems and Urban Poverty. Prepared for the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and the Connecticut green Bank.



The LMC team

LMC team

LMC staff and associates. From left to right, front row: Marcello Graziano, Paul Tett; second row: Ruth Brennan (associate), Karen Alexander, Jasper Kenter; third row: Tavis Potts (associate), Suzi Billing (PhD student); back: Kenny Black, Laurence Mee (now passed away). Staff missing from the picture: Elaine Azopardi, Lucy Greenhill, Sheila Heymans and Clive Fox.


LMC staff

Professor Paul Tett
Principal Investigator in Coastal Systems; Leader of the Laurence Mee Centre for Society and the Sea

Biological oceanography, coastal social-ecological systems, ecosystem health, social-ecological resilience, epistemology, deliberative democracy

Elaine Azzopardi
Senior Dive Technician, NERC National Facility for Scientific Diving

Underwater and maritime archaeology, maritime and coastal cultures and landscape, cultural change, public engagement
Suzi Billing
PostDoctoral Researcher, AquaSpace & MERIKA projects

Aquaculture, policy and governance, agents of change, social entrepreneurship, sustainable development, islands and peripheral regions
Professor Kenny Black
Principal Investigator in Marine Ecology

Energy, food and society, and sustainability; parasite and pollution management in aquaculture; macroalgae as a source of biofuels
Winnie Courtene-Jones SAMS

Winnie Courtene-Jones
Research student: microplastics in the deep sea
Investigaging the impacts of human activites on sensitive marine ecosystems taking a broad ecological approach.

impacts of anthropogenic activity on sensitive marine ecosystems, taking a broad ecological approach. I am particularly interested in the effects of ocean plastic on these systems, an area which I am currently exploring.

Previous work has investigated the impacts of fishing and MPAs on coral reef diversity; native-invasive species interactions; management implication of cetacean species partitioning and assessing the effectiveness of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) devices for cetacean research.

- See more at:
Dr Clive Fox SAMS

Dr Clive Fox
Principal Investigator in Fisheries and Plankton Ecology
Delivering research in support of a sustainable UK fishing industry; engagement with the fishing sector

  Lucy Greenhill
Research Associate in Marine Spatial Planning & Renewable Energy

Marine governance, planning & management; sustainable development discourses; social and political aspects of renewable energy development
  Dr Sheila Heymans
Principal Investigator in Ecosystem Modelling & Head of Ecology Department

Theoretical ecology; impacts of fishing & other anthropogenic effects on marine ecosystems & ecosystem services; ecological and social network analysis; ecosystem-based management


Dr Jasper Kenter
Principal Investigator in Ecological Economics
Keywords: Environmental values; ecosystem services (particularly cultural services); social & cultural capital; deliberative & participatory research; marine protected areas

Dr Simone Martino SAMS

Dr Simone Martino
Research Fellow in Resource Economics
Keywords: Marine resource economics; ecosystem services; coastal marine management; ICZM



Associates are close LMC collaborators in our key research areas, sharing our vision of interdisciplinarity, community engagement and participatory research.

Dr Karen Alexander: Human geography, environmental governance, knowledge exchange, integrated social/ecological impacts assessment, social license to operate. formerly SAMS now Centre for Marine Socioecology at the University of Tasmania
 Annela Anger Dr Annela Anger-Kraavi: environmental macroeconomics. UEA & University of Cambridge
Ruth Brennan: Community-culture-environment relations; conservation conflicts; marine policy; marine protected areas; art-science collaboration
 Rosalind Bryce Dr Rosalind Bryce: participatory environmental management. Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands
 Ioan Fazey Prof Ioan Fazey: social dimensions of environmental change. University of Dundee
 Iain Gatward Iain Gatward: sustainable livelihoods. Imani Development
Dr Marcello Graziano
Energy economics; energy geography; marine spatial planning; waste management; equality and environmental rights; food and democracy; new approaches for modeling wealth. Formerly SAMS
 Grete Hovelsrud Prof Grete Hovelsrud: social anthropology & social-ecological resilience. University of Nordland, Norway
 Stephen Hurl Stephen Hurrel: independent artist and filmmaker, based at Glasgow Sculpture Studios
  Dr Kate Irvine: environmental psychology. James Hutton Institute
 Andreas Kannen Dr Andreas Kannen: integrated coastal zone management & marine planning. Helmholz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Hamburg, Germany

 Annie Linley

Dr Annie Linley: marine renewable energy. NERC

Dr Tim O’Higgins: Estuarine social-ecological systems; ecosystem service mapping; economic valuation of ecosystem services; ecosystem-based management. Formerly SAMS, now University College Cork

 Cathal O’Mahony Cathal O’Mahony: integrated coastal management. University College Cork
 Nathaniel Mulcahy

Dr Dr Nathaniel Mulcahy: sustainable development, engineering & aquaculture, US National Shellfish Association & University of New Hampshire

 Tavis Potts Dr Tavis Potts: policy & governance. formerly SAMS, now University of Aberdeen
 Martin Price Prof Martin Price: sustainable mountain development, Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands
 Chris Raymond Dr Chris Raymond: cultural ecosystem services, University of South Australia
Mark Reed  Prof Mark Reed: interdisciplinary environmental studies, Birminingham University
Frank Rennie Prof Frank Rennie: sustainable rural development, Lews Castle College, University of the Highlands and Islands
Meriwether Wilson Dr Meriwether Wilson: marine science & policy, University of Edinburgh





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Laurence Mee Centre
for Society & the Sea
SAMS, Scottish Marine Institute
Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, UK
T: +44 (0)1631 59216 / 01631 59444
F: +44 (0)1631 559001