My research focuses on the consequences of invasive non-native species on the marine environment and the development of novel biosecurity techniques to minimise their introduction. These programmes involved working with a wide range of stakeholders including the aquaculture and offshore renewable energy sector. I have collaborated with colleagues in China, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, USA, numerous countries in the Mediterranean and most recently the Philippines, Indonesia and Tanzania.
I am also the Programme Leader of an Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree – Aquaculture, Environment and Society (www.emm-aces.org), which has awarded 41 scholarships to EU and international students since 2015.
Finally, I am also a member of the Scottish Government Working Group on Non Native Species, which produced the Wildlife and Natural Environment (Scotland) Act 2011; Scottish Government Working Group on Marine Non Native Species; MASTS Graduate School Committee; UHI Research Practitioners Group; and the UK Challenger Society Conference Committee. I am a handling editor for the journal Aquatic Invasions.
EMMJMD ACES. Programme leader. Funded by the EU. 2015-19
European Information System for Alien Species (EU COST). Member. Funded by the EU. 2014-17
GlobalSeaweed. Co-PI. Funded by NERC. 2015-17
ALFF - Algal Friends or Foes. Co-PI. Funded by EU. 2015-19
Biosecurity - Offshore Floating Wind: Assessing potential disperal of invasive non-native species via floating wind turbines. Director of Studies. Funded by ETP / Statoil / SNH. 2916-19
Biosecurity - Coastal Development: Assessing the potential of variations in the design of coastal development to minimise introduction of invasive non-native species. Director of Studies. Funded by DTP3. 2015-18
Biofouling / corrosion of offshore wind turbines: Assessing the risk of biofouling and corrosion to structural integrity of offshore wind turbines. Director of Studies. Funded by IDCORE/EDF. 2015-18
Selected past projects
EU Horizon Scanning. Funded by EU. 2015
Impacts of Marine INNS. Funded by DEFRA. 2015
Pacific Oyster Survey. Funded by SNH. 2014-15
Early Warning for INNS. Funded by SNH. 2013-14
Marine Biosecurity Planning. Funded by Firth of Clyde Forum / SNH. 2013
Marine Aliens I and II. Funded by Esmée Fairbairn Foundation. 2004-11
Aquaculture, Environment and Society MSc: Programme Leader
Marine Science BSc: Lecturer (previously module leader) 'Marine Biology' (year 2)
Ecosystem-based Management of Marine Systems MSc: Lecturer - Marine Systems Science
CPD short course 'Marine Invasive Species Identification' Programme Leader
CPD short course 'Biosecurity' Programme leader
Current research students
Ian Campbell: Investigating the potentioal for offshore floating wind turbines to act as stepping stones for the dispersal of invasive non-native species. PhD. 2015-18. University of the Highlands and Islands
Rebecca Giesler: Biosecurity and Blue Build. PhD. 2014-17. University of Edinburgh
Claire Canning: Corrosion and biofouling on offshore renewables. PhD. 2014-17. IDCORE
Alumni research students
Chris Nall: Marine INNS and offshore wave. PhD. 2011-14. University of Aberdeen
Adrian MacLeod: Provision of refuges for invasive non-native species by marine renewable energy structures. PhD. 2009-12. University of Aberdeen
Coleen Suckling: Calcified marine invertebrates: the effects of ocean acidification. PhD. 2008-11
Karin Boos: Mechanisms of a successful immigration from north-east Asia: settlement dynamics, competitive ability and anti-predatory strategies of Caprella mutica Schurin 1935 in European coastal waters. PhD. 2007-09. Christian-Abrechts-Universität zu Kiel (Germany)
Richard Shucksmith: Biological Invasions: The role of biodiversity in determining community susceptibility to invasion. PhD. 2004-07. University of Aberdeen
Gail Ashton: Biological Invasions – Quantifying the impact of alien species on marine ecosystems, using the introduction of the amphipod, Caprella mutica to the west coast of Scotland as a case study. PhD. 2003-06. University of Aberdeen
I have over 15 years’ experience in working on biofouling-related projects with a wide range of maritime-based industries, including the fin and shell-fish aquaculture, recreational yachting, port authorities, commercial shipping and the offshore wave, wind and tidal renewable energy industry.
Accessing consultancy services from SAMS
SAMS consultancy work is delivered through its wholly owned commercial subsidiary, SAMS Research Services Ltd. (SRSL). SRSL operates a comprehensive Quality Management System (QMS) that is accredited to ISO9001:2008 standard, guaranteeing that all projects deliver the best possible service to our customers. All SRSL projects are planned by a professional programme manager who oversees a team of dedicated project managers, all of whom are focussed specifically on client delivery, and have scientific experience and technical expertise in fields relevant to their assigned projects.
For further information concerning commercial enterprise opportunities at SAMS, please contact SRSL by email (firstname.lastname@example.org) or phone +44 (0) 1631 559 470.
Peer-reviewed publications (from 2012)
Cottier-Cook, E.J., Beveridge, C, Bishop, J, Brodie, J, Clark, P., Epstein, G, Jenkins, S. Johns, D., Loxton, J., Macleod, A., Maggs, C, Minchin, D., Mineur, F., Sewell, J and Wood, C (in press). Non-native species – A decadal review. IN Marine Climate Change Report Card.
Cottier-Cook, E.J., Nagabhatla, N., Badis, Y., Campbell, M., Chopin, T, Dai, W, Fang, J., He, P, Hewitt, C, Kim, G. H., Huo, Y, Jiang, Z, Kema, G, Li, X, Liu, F, Liu, H, Liu, Y, Lu, Q, Luo, Q, Mao, Y, Msuya, F. E, Rebours, C, Shen, H., Stentiford, G. D., Yarish, C, Wu, H, Yang, X, Zhang, J, Zhou, Y, Gachon, C. M. M. (2016). Safeguarding the future of the global seaweed aquaculture industry. United Nations University (INWEH) and Scottish Association for Marine Science Policy Brief. ISBN 978-92-808-6080-1. 12pp
Gambi, M-C, Galil, B. et al. (2016). 'The Ischia Declaration: Management of Bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea: The Way Forward' EuroMarine
Foster, V., Geisler, R., Wilson, M., Cook, E.J. (2016). Identifying the physical features of marina infrastructure associated with the presence of non-native species in the UK. Marine Biology 163:173. Doi: 10.1007/s00227-016-2941-8
Cook, E.J., Payne, R.D., MacLeod, A, Brown, S.F. (2016). Marine Biosecurity: protecting indigenous marine species. Research and Reports in Biodiversity Studies 5:1-14.
Macleod, A., Stanley, M., Day, J.G., Cook, E.J. (2016). Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating Marine Renewable Energy generation. Biofouling 32 (3): 261-276. Doi: 10.1080/08927014.2015.1136822
Corsini-Foka, M., Zenetos, A., Crocetta, F, Çinar, M E, Koçac, F., Golani, D., Louizidou, P., Durucan F., Yapici, S., Dias, M., Abecasis, A., Cardigos, D., Cook, EJ. Et al., (2015). Inventory of alien and cryptogenic species of the Dodecanese (Aegean Sea, Greece): Collaborations through coast action training school. Management of Biological Invasions 6 (4): 351-366.
Kelly, M.S., Carboni, S., Cook, E.J., Hughes, A. (2015). Sea Urchin Aquaculture in Scotland. In: Echinoderm Aquaculture (Eds.) Nicholas Brown, Steve Eddy, ISBN: 978-0-470-96038-7, 384pp, Wiley-Blackwell
Tett, P., K. Black, R. Brennan, E. Cook and K. Davidson (2015). Sustainable Mariculture at High Latitudes. Chapter 6 in 'Coastal Zones: Solutions for the 21st Century'. J. Baztan, O. Chouinard, B. Jorgensen, P. Tett, J.-P. Vanderlinden and L. Vasseur, eds. Elsevier. https://www.elsevier.com/books/coastal-zones/baztan/978-0-12-802748-6. Published June 2015. ISBN: 978-0-12-802748-6
Galil, B., Boero, F., Fraschetti, Pirano, S., Campbell, M., Hewitt, C., Carlton, J., Cook, E.J., Jelmert, A., Macpherson, E., Marchini, A., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., Mckenzie, C., Minchin, D., Ojaveer, H., Olenin, S., Ruiz, G., (2015) "SEACHANGE - The Enlargement of the Suez Canal and introduction of non-indigenous species to the Mediterranean Sea”. Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) Bulletin.
Ojaveer H, Galil BS, Campbell ML, Carlton JT, Canning-Clode J, Cook EJ, et al. (2015) Classification of Non-Indigenous Species Based on Their Impacts: Considerations for Application in Marine Management. PLoS Biol 13(4): e1002130. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002130. IF = 9.34
Galil, B.S., Boero, F., Campbell, M.L., Carlton, J.T., Cook, E.J., Fraschetti, S., Gollasch, S., Hewitt, C.L., Jelmert, A., Macpherson, E., Marchini, A., McKenzie, C., Minchin, D., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., Ojaveer, H., Olenin, S., Piraino, S., Ruiz, G.M. (2015). ‘Double trouble’: the expansion of the Suez Canal and marine bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea. Biological Invasions 17:973-976. DOI 10.1007/s10530-014-0778-y
Nall, C.R., Guerin, A.J., Cook, E.J. (2014). Rapid assessment of marine non-native species in northern Scotland and a synthesis of existing Scottish records. Aquatic Invasions.
Roy, H.E., Peyton, J., Aldridge, D.C., Bantock, T., Blackburn, T.M., Bishop, J., Britton, R., Clark, P., Cook, E.J., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Dines, T., Dobson, M., Edwards, F., Harrower, C., Harvey, M.C., Minchin, D., Noble, D.G., Parrott, D., Pocock, M.J.O., Preston, C.D., Roy, S., Salisbury, A., Schönrogge, K., Sewell, J., Shaw, R.H., Stebbing, P., Stewart, A.J.A., Walker, K.J. (2014). Horizon-scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain. Global Change Biology: 20(12) 3859–3871
Suckling, C.C., Clark, M.S., Peck, L.S., Cook., E.J. (2014). Experimental influence of pH on the early life-stages of sea urchins I: different rates of introduction give rise to different responses. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. DOI: 10.1080/07924259.2013.875950
Suckling, C.C., Clark, M.S., Beveridge, C., Brunner, L., Hughes, A., Cook, E.J., Davies, A.J., Peck, L.S. (2014). Experimental influence of pH on the early life-stages of sea urchins II: increasing parental exposure times gives rise to different responses. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development.
Cook, E.J., Jenkins, S., Maggs, C., Minchin, D., Mineur, F., Nall, C., Sewell, J. (2013). Non-native species IN Marine Climate Change Report Card. doi:10.14465/2013.arc17.155-166
Cook, E.J., Stehlikova, J, Beveridge, C. M., Burrows, M.T., Spencer-Jones, M, et al. (2013). Distribution of the invasive bryozoan Tricellaria inopinata d’Hondt and Occhipinti Ambrogi, 1985 in Scotland and a review of its European expansion. Aquatic Invasions 8 (3): 281-288. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/ai.2013.8.3.04
Miller, R.G., Hutchinson, Z. L., Macleod, A. K., Burrows, M.T., Cook, E.J., Last, K.S., Wilson, B. (2013). Marine renewable energy development: assessing the Benthic Footprint at multiple scales. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, doi:10.1890/120089
Kelly, M.S., A.D. Hughes and E. J. Cook (2013). Psammechinus miliaris. In Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology (3rd Edition). Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Volume 38 (J. Lawrence, Editor). Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. 329 – 336 pp. ISBN : 978-0-12-396491-5
Minchin, D., Cook, E.J., Clark, P.F. (2013). A list of alien brackish and marine British species. Aquatic Invasions 8 (1): 3 – 19. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/ai.2013.8.1.02
Hughes, A.D., Brunner, L., Cook, E.J., Kelly, M.S., Wilson, B. (2012). Echinoderms Display Morphological and Behavioural Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to Their Trophic Environment. PLoS ONE 7(8): e41243. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041243
Black KD, Calder LA, Nickell, TD, Sayer MDJ, Orr H, Brand T, Cook EJ, Magill S, Katz T, Eden N, Jones KJ, Tsapakis M, Angel D (2012). Chlorophyll, lipid profiles and bioturbation in sediments around a fish cage farm in the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. Aquaculture. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.04.049
Callaway, R., Shinn, A.P., Bron, J.E., Burnell, G., Cook, E.J., Cumlish, M., Culloty, S., Davidson, K., Ellis, R.P., Flynn, K.J., Fox, C., Green, D.M., Grenfell, S.E., Hayes, G., Hughes, A., Johnston, E., Lupatsch, I., Malham, S., Mendzil, A.F., Nickell, T., Pickerel, T., Rowley, A.F., Stanley, M., Tocher, D.R., Turnbull, J.F., Webb, G., Wooton, E., Sheilds, R. (2012). Review of climate change impacts on marine aquaculture in the UK and Ireland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.2247
Callaway, R., Shinn, A.P., Bron, J.E., Burnell, G., Cook, E.J., Cumlish, M., Culloty, S., Davidson, K., Ellis, R.P., Flynn, K.J., Fox, C., Green, D.M., Grenfell, S.E., Hayes, G., Hughes, A., Johnston, E., Lupatsch, I., Malham, S., Mendzil, A.F., Nickell, T., Pickerel, T., Rowley, A.F., Stanley, M., Tocher, D.R., Turnbull, J.F., Webb, G., Wooton, E., Sheilds, R. (2012). Climate change and aquaculture in the UK IN Marine Climate Change Report Card 2011. www.mccip.org.uk
Mineur, F, Cook, E.J., Minchin, D., Bohn, K., MacLeod, A., Maggs, C.A. (2012). Changing coasts: marine aliens and artificial structures. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 50: 187-232
Government/ EU reports (from 2012)
Macleod, A., Cook, E.J, Hughes, D. & Allen, C. (2015). Investigating the Impacts of Marine Invasive Non-Native Species. A report by SRSL for Natural England & Natural Resources Wales (NECR223), pp. 59
Roy, H.E., Adriaens, T., Aldridge, D.C., Bacher, S., Bishop, J.D.D., Blackburn, T.M., Branquart, E., Brodie, J., Carboneras, C., Cook, E.J., Copp, G.H., Dean, H.J., Eilenberg, J., Essl, F., Gallardo, B., Garcia, M., García-Berthou, E., Genovesi, P., Hulme, P.E., Kenis, M., Kerckhof, F., Kettunen, M., Minchin, D., Nentwig, W., Nieto, A., Pergl, J., Pescott, O., Peyton, J., Preda, C., Rabitsch, W., Roques, A., Rorke, S., Scalera, R., Schindler, S., Schönrogge, K., Sewell, J., Solarz, W., Stewart, A., Tricarico, E., Vanderhoeven, S., van der Velde, G., Vilà, M., Wood, C.A., Zenetos, A (2015) Invasive Alien Species - Prioritising prevention efforts through horizon scanning ENV.B.2/ETU/2014/0016. European Commission.
Tett, P, Fox, C, Cook, EJ, Cottier, F., Crocket, K., Davidson, K., Gowen, R., Greenhill, L., Narayanaswamy, B., Risch, D., Wilding, T. (2015). Response to DEFRA Consultation on Programmes of Measures for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. SAMS Report 23 April 2015.
Cook, E.J., Beveridge, C., Twigg, G., Macleod, A. (2015). Assessing the Effectiveness of Early Warning Systems for the Detection of Marine Invasive Non-Native Species in Scottish Waters. SAMS, Scottish Natural Heritage & Marine Scotland Science Commissioned Report No. 874.
Payne, R.D., Cook, E.J. and Macleod, A. (2014). Marine Biosecurity Planning – Guidance for producing site and operation-based plans for preventing the introduction of non-native species. Report by SRSL Ltd. in conjunction with Robin Payne to the Firth of Clyde Forum and Scottish Natural Heritage 39 pp.
Cook, E.J., Payne, R.D., Macleod, A. (2014). Marine biosecurity planning – Identification of best practice: A review. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 748. pp 45.
Nimmo, F., Cook, E. J., Moxey, A. P., Hambrey, J. and Black, K. (2012). Cost-benefit analysis of management options for Didemnum vexillum (carpet sea squirt) in Scotland. Report by Hambrey Consulting in association with the Scottish Association for Marine Science and Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management to the Scottish Government. Tender Ref: Cr/2011/16. pp. 69
Contract reports (from 2012)
Macleod, A., Allen, C., & Cook, E.J. (2016). Assessment of the biological risks associated with the relocation of the Janice A platform. A report by SRSL for Maersk Oil North Sea UK Ltd., pp. 22
Cook, E.J., Beveridge, C.M., Lamont, P., O’Higgins, T., Wilding, T. (2014). Survey of Wild Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in Scotland. Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum Report SARF099. ISBN: 978-1-907266-65-2.
Cook, E. J., Davidson, K., Fox, C. and Black, K. 2012. Monitoring and eradication of invasive and non-native species in aquaculture units. Report by Scottish Association for Marine Science to the Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum. Tender Ref: SARF087. 39pp. ISBN: 978-1-907266-52-2.
AURORA Higher Education Leadership Programme, Member, 2015-present
Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, 2011-present
Scottish Government Working Group on Non-Native Marine Species (MASTS representative). Member, 2016-present
ICES Working Group on International Movement and Transfers of Marine Organisms. Member, 2014–present
Expert network for the UK Commission for UNESCO. Member, 2015–present
UHI Athena Swann Working Group. Member, 2015–present
UHI Research Practitioners Group. Member, 2014–2017
MASTS Graduate School. Member, 2013-present
Review Panel of Ireland Non-native Invasive Species List. Member, Sept 2012
Advisor to Environment Agency (England) on potential impacts of Caprella mutica (APEM Ltd Report; Oct 2011)
UK Working Group on the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum (lead by GB Non-native species secretariat). Member, 2009–2010
Scottish Working Group on the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum (lead by SNH). Member, 2008–2010
Scottish Working Group on Invasive Non-native Species – Sustainable Development and Biodiversity Division of the Scottish Government. Member, 2006–present
Expert advice to regulators / government
Through membership of committees listed above, plus…
Invited reviewer of Orkney Islands Non-Native Species Biosecurity Plan (Dec, 2012)
Invited speaker for Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Assessment Group (SOTEAG) Monitoring Committee Meeting (Dec 2012, Aberdeen)
Invited expert for new GB Non-native Species Information Portal (GB-NNSIP) (2012)
Invited reviewer of Ireland NIS List (Sept 2012)
Nominated for HISA 'Most Inspiring Lecturer' in 2011 and 2013
BBC World Service TV – Live Interview – 4 Sept 2016
BBC Radio 4 Today Programme (Live) – 9 Sept 2016
Interviews with US and Australian Radio Programmes (Live)
BBC Scotland (1 June 2016) – Ken MacDonald – News Show from 50:26 onwards
BBC World Service – Science in Action (13 August 2015) - from 8:56 onwards
Radio 4 Material World (Quentin Blake) (Feb 2011);
Radio 5 Live (Nicky Campbell) (2008 – Sargassum)
Oban FM (2000)
Radio 1 Newsbeat (1998)
Radio Scotland (1998 & 1999)
Radio 5 Countryfile (1997)
BBC World Service (1997)
Aquatic Invasions, online journal e-ISSN: 1818-5487 (2010-present): Handling Editor
Biological Invasion Records, online journal ISSN: 2242-1300 (2014-present): Handling Editor
Organiser - SNH Sharing Good Practice Event – Marine Biosecurity, SNH, Oct 2016
Co-organiser - Global Seaweed Workshop, Seaweed and Global Policymaking with Dr Adeel (Director of UNU-INWEH), SAMS, March 2016
Scientific organising committee – UK Challenger Society Conference, 2016
Special Session Organiser – Environmental Biohazards – MASTS Annual Meeting, Glasgow. Sept 2015
Organiser – MASTS Graduate School Marine Policy Day, Edinburgh, March 2015
Co-organiser - MASTS Special Workshop on Marine Invasives, SAMS, 2014.
Co-organiser, E-COST Training Workshop on Marine Invasives Species Identification, Rhodes, Greece, 2014
Workshop Co-ordinator for Association for Scottish Shellfish Growers, Marine Biosecurity, SAMS, 2013
Workshop Co-ordinator – Scottish Natural Heritage - Marine Biosecurity at Sharing Good Practice Event, Battleby, Perth, 2013
Member of organising and scientific committee for International conference on the Environmental Interactions of Marine Renewables, Orkney (April 2012)
Co-organiser for Linnean Society Meeting on Marine Aliens, London (Feb 2011).
Invited Keynote Speaker – 45th EMBS, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh (August 2010)
Co-organiser for Aquaculture and Biodiversity Session (European Aquaculture Society Meeting, Istanbul, Turkey, October 2007)
Scientific committee member and session chair for UK Joint Aquatic Associations conference (July 2007)
Scientific organising committee member - 6th International Crustacean Congress, Glasgow, UK (2005)
Co-organiser for Decommissioning of Offshore Oilrigs Conference, SAMS, Oban (2000)
Outreach and public engagement
SAMS Outreach – Annual participation in events at Ocean Explorer Centre
SAMS Open Day (March 2009). Invasive Species and Hull Fouling. Interview with ‘For Argyll’ and reporter from the Oban Times.
BBC World Service (April 2004). Falklands Programme – Invasive Species – Skeleton Shrimps. Broadcast to Falklands, S. Atlantic Islands, S. America. Dee Palmer.
Oban High School (Dec 2003). Interactive talks to first year pupils with Spikey, the deep sea angler fish and the food chain.
SHELL Education Service (May 2003). Invited speaker at education events organised by SHELL at Colme’s House, Nr Aberdour.
Lochaber High School (Feb 2003). Interactive talks to first year pupils with Spikey and the deep sea angler fish.
Oban High School (Nov. 2002). Interactive talks to first year pupils with Spikey and the deep sea angler fish.
SHELL Education Service (2002). Invited speaker at education events organised in Dundee, Aberdeen, Methil (Fife), Dalgety Bay (Firth of Forth).
Royal Society COPUS Grant (March 2002). Awarded £1,500 for a science roadshow in Argyll & Bute with two giant model sea creatures – ‘Spikey & Squirt’.
British Association Festival of Science - Stand up Science Show, Sheffield (Invited speaker 1999)/ Young Persons Programme, Glasgow (Invited speaker 2001)
Pupil Research Initiative (PRI) conferences - 'Frontiers of Science Speaker' - Newcastle (2000), Aberdeen (2000) and Edinburgh (1999 & 2000).
SAMS Science Roadshow Presenter - Interactive talk involving a giant model sea urchin, known as 'Spike'. The talk is suitable for all ages and has been seen by over 3,250 pupils throughout the U.K.
National Science Week (2000/2001) - Organised 'Open Evenings' at SAMS sponsored by COPUS, featuring the research at the Laboratory.
'Women in Science' 2001 - Organised and presented this event to 80 girl guides in the Argyll region with the help of other female colleagues at SAMS. Sponsored by the DTI.
SAMS Schools Days - Organised Marine Watch 2000. The event attracted over 450 school children from throughout primary schools in Argyll & Bute.
CREST Awards 2000 (Loughborough University) - Invited judge
2013-present: Head of SAMS-United Nations University Associate Institute & Senior Lecturer in Marine Biology. SAMS
2006-13: Lecturer in Marine Biology. SAMS
2001-06. PDRA. SAMS
2000-01: Education / Promotion Manager. SAMS
1999 PhD in Invertebrate Aquaculture. Napier University
1995 MSc Marine Resource Development and Protection. Heriot-Watt University
1994 BSc (Hons) Biology. Bristol University