I manage the operation and delivery of the regulatory monitoring programme for biotoxin-producing phytoplankton, conducted by SAMS on behalf of Food Standards Scotland. We report the concentration of potentially harmful phytoplankton from around 40 sites every week.
Some phytoplankton can produce toxins that accumulate in bivalve molluscs, which leads to human illness if the shellfish are consumed. Monitoring the development of phytoplankton blooms can therefore act as an early warning system for toxic events.
Since 2005 Phytoplankton Monitoring Programme Manager. SAMS
1992-2005 Support scientist. SAMS
1988 BSc (Hons) Physics. University of Southampton
Gianella F, Burrows MT, Swan SC, Turner AD and Davidson K (2021) Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Harmful Algae Affecting Scottish Shellfish Aquaculture. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8:785174. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.785174
Davidson K, Whyte C, Aleynik D, Kurekin A, Gontarek S, McNeill S, Miller PI, Porter M, Saxon R, Swan S (2021) HABreports: Online early warning of harmful algal and biotoxin risk for the Scottish shellfish and finfish aquaculture industries. Frontiers in Marine Science 8, 350 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.631732
Bresnan E, Arévalo F, Belin C, Branco MAC, Cembella A, Clarke D, Correa J, Davidson K, Dhanji-Rapkova M, Fernández Lozanoi R, Fernández-Tejedor M, Guðfinnsson H, Carbonelli DJ, Laza-Martinez A, Lemoine M, Lewish AM, Mamán Menéndez L, Maskrey BH, McKinney A, Pazos Y, Revilla M, Siano R, Silva A, Swan S, Turner AD, Schweibold L, Provoost P, Enevoldsen H (2021) Diversity and regional distribution of harmful algal events along the Atlantic margin of Europe. Harmful Algae 101976
Swan S (2021). Monitoring potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in Scottish coastal waters: Interpreting the data for risk assessment and identifying trends – the caveats. ToR E: New Findings. In ICES. 2021. Joint ICES/IOC Working Group on Harmful Algal Bloom Dynamics (WGHABD; outputs from 2020 meeting). ICES Scientific Reports. 3:71. 126 pp. https://doi.org/10.17895/ices.pub.8225, pages 8-11.
Swan S (2021). United Kingdom: National Report 2017–2019. In ICES. 2021. Joint ICES/IOC Working Group on Harmful Algal Bloom Dynamics (WGHABD; outputs from 2020 meeting). ICES Scientific Reports. 3:71. 126 pp. https://doi.org/10.17895/ices.pub.8225, pages 90-92.
Algoet M, Coates L, Swan S, Bickerstaff L, Ford C and Panton S (2021). The shellfish official control monitoring programmes for Scotland. Summary report for 2020. 38 pages. Available at https://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/downloads/C7710_-_FSS_2020_Summary_report_-_Final_v1_-_150721_to_FSS.pdf
Swan SC (2020). Algal Toxins. In Moffat C, Baxter J, Berx B, Bosley K, Boulcott P, Cox M, Cruickshank L, Gillham K, Haynes V, Roberts A, Vaughan D and Webster L (Eds.). Scotland's Marine Assessment 2020. Scottish Government. http://marine.gov.scot/sma/assessment/algal-toxins
Coates L, Parks R, Swan S, Davidson K, Turner A, Maskrey B, Bickerstaff L, Ford C and Panton SW (2020). Annual report on the results of the Shellfish Official Control Monitoring Programmes for Scotland – 2019. Annual report on the results of the E. coli, biotoxin, phytoplankton and chemical contaminants Official Control Monitoring Programmes for Scotland – 2019. FINAL report, 75 pages. Available at https://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/downloads/Shellfish_-_Cefas_-_Annual_Report_-_FSS_-_2019.pdf
Dhanji-Rapkova M, O’Neill A, Maskrey BH, Coates L, Swan SC, Teixeira Alves M, Kelly RJ, Hatfield RG, Rowland-Pilgrim SJ, Lewis AM and Turner AD (2019). Variability and profiles of lipophilic toxins in bivalves from Great Britain during five and a half years of monitoring: azaspiracids and yessotoxins. Harmful Algae 87, 101629, 18pp.
Rowland-Pilgrim S, Swan SC, O'Neill A, Johnson S, Coates L, Stubbs P, Dean K, Parks R, Harrison K, Teixeira Alves M, Walton A, Davidson K, Turner AD and Maskrey BH (2019). Variability of Amnesic Shellfish Toxin and Pseudo-nitzschia occurrence in bivalve molluscs and water samples - analysis of ten years of the official control monitoring programme. Harmful Algae 87, 101623, 26pp.
Swan SC, Turner AD, Bresnan E, Whyte C, Paterson RF, McNeill S, Mitchell E and Davidson K (2018). Dinophysis acuta in Scottish Coastal Waters and its Influence on Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Profiles. Toxins 10, 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100399
Parks R, Swan S, Davidson K, Turner A, Maskrey B, Powell A, Ford C and Petch RG (2019). Annual report on the results of the Shellfish Official Control Monitoring Programmes for Scotland – 2018. Annual report on the results of the E. coli, biotoxin, phytoplankton and chemical contaminants Official Control Monitoring Programmes for Scotland – 2018. FINAL report, 76 pages. Available at https://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/downloads/Shellfish_-_Cefas_-_Annual_Report_-_FSS_-_2018_1.pdf
Coates L, Swan S, Davidson K, Turner A, Maskrey B and Algoet M (2018). Annual report on the results of the Biotoxin and Phytoplankton Official Control Monitoring Programmes for Scotland – 2017. FSS 2015 005. Cefas contract report C7478 & C7479, 48pp. Available at https://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/downloads/Shellfish_-_Cefas_-_Annual_Report_-_FSS_-_2017.pdf
Paterson, R.F., McNeill, S., Mitchell, E., Adams, T., Swan, S.C., Clarke, D., Miller, P.I., Bresnan, E., Davidson, K., (2017). Environmental control of harmful dinoflagellates and diatoms in a fjordic system. Harmful Algae 69, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2017.09.002
Coates L, Swan S, Davidson K, Turner A, Maskrey B and Algoet M (2017). Annual report on the results of the Biotoxin and Phytoplankton Official Control Monitoring Programmes for Scotland – 2016. FSA 199 Cefas contract report C5666-C5667, 52pp Available at https://www.foodstandards.gov.scot/downloads/Shellfish_-_Cefas_-_Annual_Report_-_FSS_-_2016.pdf
Holtrop G, Swan S, Duff B, Wilding T, Narayanaswamy B, Davidson K (2016). Risk assessment of the Scottish monitoring programme for the marine biotoxins in shellfish harvested from classified production areas: review of the current sampling scheme to develop an improved programme based on evidence of risk. FSS/2015/021. 218pp
Davidson K, Baker C, Higgins C, Higman W, Swan S, Veszelovszki A and Turner AD (2015). Potential threats posed by new or emerging marine biotoxins in UK Waters and examination of detection methodologies used for their control: Cyclic imines. Marine Drugs, 13, 7087–7112; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13127057
Swan SC and Davidson K (2015). Alexandrium and risk management within the Scottish phytoplankton monitoring programme. A. Lincoln MacKenzie (Ed). Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Harmful Algae, Wellington, New Zealand, 27 - 31 Oct 2014. Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand and International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae (ISSHA). pp 266-269
Whyte C, Swan S and Davidson K (2014). Changing wind patterns linked to unusually high Dinophysis blooms around the coast of the Shetland Islands, Scotland. Harmful Algae 39: 365-373
Shutler JD, Davidson K, Miller PI, Swan SC, Grant MG and Bresnan E (2011). An adaptive approach to detect high biomass algal blooms from EO chlorophyll-a data in support of harmful algal bloom monitoring. Remote Sensing Letters. Volume 3 Issue 2, March 2011
Davidson K, Miller P, Wilding TA, Shutler J, Bresnan E, Kennington K and Swan S (2009). A large and prolonged bloom of Karenia mikimotoi in Scottish waters in 2006. Harmful Algae, 8, vol 2, 349-361