Professor Kenneth D Black

        Photo of Professor Black in orange hard hat and swim vest with sediment core during sampling trip

SAMS Honorary Research Fellow

I have been a researcher in marine science at SAMS since 1991 and have published 80 ISI peer-reviewed journal papers on a variety of topics ranging from organic chemistry to modelling environmental impacts of aquaculture. I have been awarded over 50 research grants as PI or co-PI.

Contact details:

Summary of research interests

Most of my interests relate to modelling environmental impacts of aquaculture. n recent years I have become interested in modelling sea lice connectivity with Tom Adams and others, in renewable energy from seaweed with Adam Hughes, Michele Stanley and Maeve Kelly, and in mining impacts in PNG with Tracy Shimmield, David Hughes and John Howe.

List of current research activities

I am currently working on a review of Broad Scale Environmental Monitoring of fish farming for the Tasmanian Environmental Protection Authority with Paul Tett.

Peer-reviewed publications


Adams TP, Black K, Black K, Carpenter T, Hughes A, Reinardy HC, Weeks RJ (2020) Parameterising resuspension in aquaculture waste deposition modelling. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 12:401-415. 

Kerrison, P. D., Stanley, M. S., Black, K. D. & Hughes, A. D. 2017 Assessing the suitability of twelve polymer substrates for the cultivation of macroalgae Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima (Laminariales) Algal Research. 22, p. 127-134

Adams, T.P., Aleynik, D. and Black, K.D. 2016. Temporal variability in sea lice population connectivity and implications for regional management protocols. Aquaculture Environment Interactions. 8. 585-596. 

Hughes, A.D. and Black, K.D. 2016. Going beyond the search for solutions: understanding trade-offs in European integrated multi-trophic aquaculture development. Aquaculture Environment Interactions. 8. 191-199.

Kerrison PD, Stanley MS, Kelly M, MacLeod A, Black KD and Hughes AD (2016). Optimising the settlement and hatchery culture of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyta) by manipulation of growth medium and substrate surface condition. Journal of Applied Phycology 28(2): 1181-1191.

Schiener, P., Stanley, M.S., Black, K.D. and Green, D.H. 2016. Assessment of saccharification and fermentation of brown seaweeds to identify the seasonal effect on bioethanol production. Journal of Applied Phycology. 1-12.

Cottrell RS, Black KD, Hutchison ZL, Last KS (2016) The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0147534. 

Kalantzi, I., Pergantis, S.A., Black, K.D., Shimmield, T.M., Papageorgiou, N., Tsapakis, M. and Karakassis, I. 2016. Metals in tissues of seabass and seabream reared in sites with oxic and anoxic substrata and risk assessment for consumers. Food Chemistry. 194. 659-670.

Lejzerowicz, F., Esling, P., Pillet, L., Wilding, T.A., Black, K.D. and Pawlowski, J. 2015. High-throughput sequencing and morphology perform equally well for benthic monitoring of marine ecosystems. Scientific Reports. 5. 13932.

Slocombe, S.P., Zhang, Q., Ross, M., Anderson, A., Thomas, N.J., Lapresa, Á., Rad-Menéndez, C., Campbell, C.N., Black, K.D., Stanley, M.S. and Day, J.G. 2015. Unlocking nature’s treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae. Scientific Reports. 5. 9844.

Hughes, D.J., Shimmield, T.M., Black, K.D. and Howe, J.A. 2015. Ecological impacts of large-scale disposal of mining waste in the deep sea. Scientific Reports. 5. 9985.

Kerrison PD, Stanley MS, Edwards, MD, Black KD and Hughes AD. (2015) The cultivation of European kelp for bioenergy: site and species selection. Biomass and Bioenergy. 80 229 - 242

Adams T, Proud R, Black KD. 2015. Connected networks of sea lice populations: dynamics and implications for control. Aquaculture Environment Interactions. 6: 273-284  

Price CS, Black KD, Hargrave BT, Morris Jr, JA (2015) Marine cage culture and the environment: effects on water quality and primary production. Aquaculture Environment Interactions. 6: 151–174 doi: 10.3354/aei00122

Jackson, D., Drumm, A., McEvoy, S., Jensen, Ø., Mendiola, D., Gabiña, G., Borg, J., Papageorgiou, N., Karakassis, Y., Black, K. (2015). A pan-European valuation of the extent, causes and cost of escape events from sea cage fish farming. Aquaculture. 436 21-26

Jones, A.C., Mead, A., Kaiser, M.J., Austen, M.C.V., Adrian, A.W., Auchterlonie, N.A., Black, K.D., Blow, L.R., Bury, C., Brown, J.H., Burnell, G.M., Connolly, E., Dingwall, A., Derrick, S., Eno, N.C., Gautier, D.J.H., Green, K.A., Gubbins, M., Hart, P.R., Holmyard, J.M., Immink, A.J., Jarrad, D.L., Katoh, E., Langley, J.C.R., Lee, D.O.C., Le Vay, L., Leftwich, C.P., Mitchell, M., Moore, A., Murray, A.G., McLaren, E.M.R., Norbury, H., Parker, D., Parry, S.O., Purchase, D., Rahman, A., Sanver, F., Siggs, M., Simpson, S.D., Slaski, R.J., Smith, K., Syvret, M.L.Q., Tibbott, C., Thomas, P.C., Turnbull, J., Whiteley, R., Whittles, M., Wilcockson, M.J., Wilson, J., Dicks, L.V. and Sutherland, W.J. 2015. Prioritization of knowledge needs for sustainable aquaculture: a national and global perspective. Fish and Fisheries. 16. 668-683.

Schiener P, Black KD, Stanley MS, Green, DH (2015) The seasonal variation in the chemical composition of the kelp species Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta. Journal of Applied Phycology, 27:363–373

Kalantzi I, Papageorgiou N, Sevastou K, Black KD, Pergantis SA, Karakassis I (2014) Metals in benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical factors affecting their trophic transfer to wild fish around fish farm cages. Science of the Total Environment 470–471: 742–753

Hawkins AJS, Pascoe PL, Parry H, Brinsley M, Cacciatore F, Black KD, Fang JG, Jiao H, McGonigle C, Moore H, O'Boyle N, O'Carroll T, Loan BO, Service M, Smaal AC, Yan X, Zhang JH, Zhang XL, Zhu MY (2013) Comparative feeding on chlorophyll-rich versus remaining organic matter in bivalve shellfish. Journal of Shellfish Research 32: 883-897 https:/ 

Hawkins AJS, Pascoe PL, Parry H, Brinsley M, Black KD, McGonigle C, Moore H, Newell CR, O'Boyle N, O’Carroll T, O'Loan B, Service M, Smaal AC, Zhang XL, Zhu MY (2013) Shellsim: A Generic Model of Growth and Environmental Effects Validated Across Contrasting Habitats in Bivalve Shellfish. Journal of Shellfish Research 32:237-253

Kalantzi, I., Black, KD, Pergantis, SA., Shimmield TM., Papageorgioua, N., Sevastoua, K., I. Karakassis, I. (2013). Metals and other elements in tissues of wild fish from fish farms and comparison with farmed species in sites with oxic and anoxic sediments. Food Chemistry 141: 680-694

Karakassis, I., Dimitrioua, P.D., Papageorgioua, N., Apostolaki, E.T., Lampadariou, N. and Black, K.D. (2013) Methodological considerations on the coastal and transitional benthic indicators proposed for the Water Framework Directive. Ecological Indicators. 29. 26-33

Slocombe, S.P., Zhang, Q., Black, K.D., Day, J.G. and Stanley, M.S. (2013) Comparison of screening methods for high-throughput determination of oil yields in micro-algal biofuel strains. Journal of Applied Phycology. 25:961–972

Hughes AD, Kelly MS, Black KD and Stanley MS (2012) Biogas from Macroalgae: is it time to revisit the idea? Biotechnology for Biofuels, 5:86 doi:10.1186/1754-6834-5-86

Arechavala-Lopez P, Fernandez-Jover D, Black KD, Ladoukakis E, Bayle-Sempere JT, Sanchez-Jerez P, Dempster T (2013) Differentiating the wild or farmed origin of Mediterranean fish: a review of tools for sea bream and sea bass. Reviews in Aquaculture 5:137-157 doi: 10.2983/035.032.0332

Kalantzi, I., Shimmield, T.M., Pergantis, S.A., Papageorgiou, N., Black, K.D. and Karakassis, I. 2013. Heavy metals, trace elements and sediment geochemistry at four Mediterranean fish farms. The Science of the Total Environment. 444. 128-137.

Hughes, A.D., Black, K.D., Campbell, I., Davidson, K., Kelly, M.S. and Stanley, M.S. (2012) Does seaweed offer a solution for bioenergy with biological carbon capture and storage? Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 2:1–6 DOI: 10.1002/ghg

Adams T, Black K, MacIntyre C, MacIntyre I, Dean R (2012) Connectivity modelling and network analysis of sea lice infection in Loch Fyne, west coast of Scotland. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 3:51-63

Hughes A, Black K, Campbell I, Heymans J, Orr K, Stanley M, et al. (2013) Comments on ‘Prospects for the use of macroalgae for fuel in Ireland and UK: An overview of marine management issues’. Marine Policy, 38, 554–556 doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.1008.1001.

Black, K.D., Calder, L.A., Nickell, T.D., Sayer, M.D.J., Orr, H., Brand, T., Cook, E.J., Magill, S.H., Katz, T., Eden, N., Jones, K.J., Tsapakis, M. and Angel, D. 2012. Chlorophyll, lipid profiles and bioturbation in sediments around a fish cage farm in the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. Aquaculture. 356. 317-327.

Gontikaki, E., Polymenakou, P.N., Thornton, B., Narayanaswamy, B.E., Black, K., Tselepides, A. and Witte, U. 2012. Microbial Response to Organic Matter Enrichment in the Oligotrophic Levantine Basin (Eastern Mediterranean). Geomicrobiology Journal. 29. 648-655.

Cromey, C.J., Thetmeyer, H., Lampadariou, N., Black, K.D., Kögeler, J., Karakassis, I., 2012. MERAMOD - predicting the deposition and benthic impact of aquaculture in the Eastern Mediterranean. Aquaculture Environment Interactions. 2, 157-176 Doi: 10.3354/aei00034

Paterson, D.M., Hanley, N.D., Black, K., Defew, E.C., Solan, M., 2011. Science and policy mismatch in coastal zone ecosystem management. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 434, 201-202.

Hughes, A.D., Cook, E.J., Orr, H., Kelly, M.S., Black, K.D., 2011. The transformation of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in benthic food webs: The role of sea urchins. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 409. 229-234 doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.08.027

Gontikaki, E., Mayor, D.J., Thornton, B., Black, K. and Witte, U. 2011. Processing of 13C-labelled diatoms by a bathyal community at sub-zero temperatures. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 421 39-50.

Duarte, Carlos M., Marianne Holmer, Yngvar Olsen, Doris Soto, Núria Marbà, Joana Guiu, Kenny Black, Ioannis Karakassis. (2009) Will the Oceans Help Feed Humanity? BioScience 59 967-976 (IF 4.7)

Folmer, F., Jaspars, M., Solano, G., Cristofanon, S., Henry, E., Tabudravu, J., Black, K., Green, D.H., Kupper, F.C., Aalbersberg, W., Feussner, K., Dicato, M. and Diederich, M. 2009. The inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappa B activation by marine natural products. Biochemical Pharmacology 78. 592-606.

Nickell, T.D., Cromey, C.J., Borja, Á., and Black, K.D., (2009). The benthic impacts of a large cod farm – are there indicators for environmental sustainability? Aquaculture 293 231-240

Adey, E.A., Black, K.D., Sawyer,, T, Shimmield, T.M. and C.N. Trueman, C.N. (2009) Scale microchemistry as a tool to investigate the origin of wild and farmed Salmo salar. Marine Ecology Progress Series 390 225-235

Dodds, L.A., Black, K.D., Orr, H. and Roberts, J.M. (2009) Lipid biomarkers reveal geographical differences in food supply to the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia). Marine Ecology Progress Series 397, 113-124

Borja, Á. J. Germán Rodríguez, Kenny Black, Alain Bodoy, Chris Emblow, Teresa F. Fernandes, Janez Forte, Ioannis Karakassis, Iñigo Muxika, Thom D. Nickell, Nafsika Papageorgiou, Fabio Pranovi, Katerina Sevastou, Paolo Tomassetti, Dror Angel. (2009) Assessing the suitability of a range of benthic indices in the evaluation of environmental impact of fin and shellfish aquaculture located in sites across Europe. Aquaculture 293, 231–240

Cromey, C.J., Nickell, T.D., Treasurer, J., Black, K.D., Inall, M., 2009. Modelling the impact of cod (Gadus morhua L) farming in the marine environment-CODMOD. Aquaculture 289, 42-53.

Robertson, P.K.J., Black, K, Adams, M., Willis, K., Buchan, F, Muir, H., Lawton, L. and McCullagh,. C. (2009) A new generation of biocides for control of crustacea in fish farms. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 95, 58–63.

Gutierrez, T., Shimmield, T.M., Haidon, C., Black, K. and Green, D.H. (2008) Emulsifying and metal ion binding activity of a glycoprotein exopolymer produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain TG12. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74 4867–4876 doi:10.1128/AEM.00316-08

Navarro, N., Leakey, R.J.G., Black, K.D. (2008) Effect of salmon cage aquaculture on the pelagic environment of temperate coastal waters: seasonal changes in nutrients and microbial community Marine Ecology Progress Series 361, 47-58 doi: 10.3354/meps07357

Gutierrez, T., Mulloy, B., Bavington, C., Black, K. and Green, D. H. (2007). Partial purification and chemical characterization of a glycoprotein (putative hydrocolloid) emulsifier produced by a marine bacterium Antarctobacter. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 76, 1017-1026.

Cook E.J., Hughes A.D., Orr, H., Kelly, M.S. and Black, K.D. (2007) Influence of dietary protein on essential fatty acids in the gonadal tissue of the sea urchins Psammechinus miliaris and Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata). Aquaculture 273, 586-594

Gutierrez, T., Mulloy, B., Black, K. and Green, D. H. (2007). Glycoprotein emulsifiers from two marine Halomonas species: chemical and physical characterization. Journal of Applied Microbiology 103, 1716-1727.

Liu, H., Kelly, M. S., Cook, E. J., Black, K., Orr, H., Zhu, J. X. and Dong, S. L. (2007). The effect of diet type on growth and fatty acid composition of the sea urchin larvae, II. Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin). Aquaculture 264, 263-278.

Liu, H., Kelly, M. S., Cook, E. J., Black, K., Orr, H., Zhu, J. X. and Dong, S. L. (2007). The effect of diet type on growth and fatty-acid composition of sea urchin larvae, I. Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (Echinodermata). Aquaculture 264, 247-262.

Obajimi, O., Black, K. D., Glen, I. and Ross, B. M. (2007). Antioxidant modulation of oxidant-stimulated uptake and release of arachidonic acid in eicosapentaenoic acid-supplemented human lymphoma U937 cells. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 76, 65-71. (IF 1.807)

Dean, R. J., Shimmield, T. M. and Black, K. D. (2007). Copper, zinc and cadmium in marine cage fish farm sediments: an extensive survey. Environmental Pollution 145, 84-95.

Cook, E.J., K.D.Black, M.D.J. Sayer, C.J. Cromey, D. Angel, E. Spanier, A. Tsemel, T. Katz, N. Eden, I. Karakassis, M. Tsapakis, E. Apostolaki and A. Malej (2006) The influence of caged mariculture on the early development of sub-littoral fouling communities: a pan-European study. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63: 637-649

Hughes, A. D., Kelly, M. S., Barnes, D. K. A., Catarino, A. I. and Black, K. D. (2006) The dual functions of sea urchin gonads are reflected in the temporal variations of their biochemistry. Marine Biology 148, 789-798.

Hughes, A. D., Catarino, A. I., Kelly, M. S., Barnes, D. K. A. and Black, K. D. (2005) Gonad fatty acids and trophic interactions of the echinoid Psammechinus miliaris. Marine Ecology Progress Series 305, 101-111.

Whitmarsh, D. J., Cook, E. J. and Black, K. D. (2006) Searching for sustainability in aquaculture: an investigation into the economic prospects for an integrated salmon-mussel production system. Marine Policy 30, 293-298.

Obajimi, O., Black, K. D., Macdonald, D. J., Boyle, R. M., Glen, I. and Ross, B. M. (2005) Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids upon oxidant-stimulated release and uptake of arachidonic acid in human lymphoma U937 cells. Pharmacology Research 52, 183-191.

Willis, K.J., Gillibrand, P.A., Cromey, C.J. and Black, K.D. (2005) Sea Lice Treatments at a Salmon Farm have No Adverse Effects on Zooplankton Communities, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50 806-816.

Pereira, P. M. F., Black, K. D., Mclusky, D. S. & Nickell, T. D. (2004). Recovery of sediments after cessation of marine fish farm production. Aquaculture. 235, 315–330

Nickell, L. A., K. D. Black, D. J. Hughes, J. Overnell, T. Brand, T. D. Nickell, E. Breuer and S. M. Harvey (2003). "Bioturbation, sediment fluxes and benthic community structure around a salmon cage farm in Loch Creran, Scotland." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 285: 221-233.

Cromey, C. J., Nickell, T. D., Black, K. D., Provost, P. G. & Griffiths, C. R. (2002). Validation of a fish farm waste resuspension model by use of a particulate tracer discharged from a point source in a coastal environment. Estuaries 25, 916-929.

Cromey, C. J., Nickell, T. D. & Black, K. D. (2002). DEPOMOD - modelling the deposition and biological effects of waste solids from marine cage farms. Aquaculture 214, 211-239.

Black, K. D. and Mac Dougall, N., (2002). Hydrography of four Mediterranean marine cage sites. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 18, 1-5

Pantazis, P. A., Kelly, M. S., Connolly, J. G. and Black, K. D. (2000) Effect of artificial diets on growth, lipid utilization, and gonad biochemistry in the adult sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Journal of Shellfish Research, 19 995-1001.

Cook, E. J., Bell, M. V., Black, K. D. and Kelly, M. S. (2000) Fatty acid composition of gonagal material and diets of the sea urchin, Psammechinus miliaris: trophic and nutritional implications. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 255 261-274.

McKenzie, J. D., Black, K. D., Kelly, M. S., Newton, L. C., Handley, L. L., Scrimgeour, C. M., Raven, J. A. and Henderson, R. J. (2000) Comparisons of fatty acid and stable isotope ratios in symbiotic and non-symbiotic brittlestars from Oban Bay, Scotland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80 311-320.

Mac Dougall, N. & Black, K. D. (1999) Determining sediment properties around a marine cage farm using acoustic ground discrimination: RoxAnn. Aquaculture Research, 30 1-8.

Thetmeyer, H., Waller, U., Black, K. D., Inselmann, S. and Rosenthal, H. (1999) Growth of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) under hypoxic and oscillating oxygen conditions. Aquaculture, 174 355-367.

Cromey, C.J., Black, K.D., Edwards, A. and Jack I.A. (1998) Modelling the deposition and biological effects of organic carbon from marine sewage discharges. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 47, 295-308.

Carrie, R., Mitchell, L. & Black, K.D. (1998) Seasonal fatty acid fluctuations on the Hebridean Shelf Edge. Organic Geochemistry, 29 1583-1593.

Henderson, R. J., D.A.M. Forrest, Black, K. D. and Park, M. T. (1998) Environmental distribution of lipids in sealoch sediments underlying marine fish cages. Aquaculture, 158 69-83.

Heasman, M. S. and Black, K. D. (1998) The potential of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) for mariculture. Aquaculture Research., 29 67-76.

Kiemer, M. C. B. and Black, K. D. (1997) The effects of hydrogen peroxide on the gill tissues of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquaculture, 153 181-189.

Black, K. D., Fleming, S., Nickell, T. D. and Pereira, P. M. F. (1997) The effects of ivermectin, used to control sea lice on caged farmed salmonids, on infaunal polychaetes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54 276-279.

Black, K. D., Kiemer, M. C. B. and Ezzi, I. A. (1996) The relationships between hydrodynamics, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide produced by polluted sediments and fish health at several marine cage farms in Scotland and Ireland. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 12 15-20.

Black, K. D. and Gunstone, F. D. (1996) Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Benzene and Toluene With Olefinic C-6 Hydrocarbons and Esters. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 79 79-86.

Black, K. D. and Gunstone, F. D. (1996) The Friedel-Crafts Adducts of Methyl Oleate With Benzene and Toluene. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 79 87-94.

Kiemer, M. C. B., Black, K. D., Lussot, D., Bullock, A. M. and Ezzi, I. (1995) The effects of chronic and acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Aquaculture, 135 311-327.

Black, K. D., Ezzi, I. A., Kiemer, M. C. B. and Wallace, A. J. (1994) Preliminary Evaluation of the Effects of Long-Term Periodic Sublethal Exposure to Hydrogen-Sulfide On the Health of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo- Salar L). Journal of Applied Ichthyology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Ichthyologie, 10 362-367.

Black, K. D. and Gunstone, F. D. (1990) The Synthesis and Spectroscopic Properties of Some Polyol Esters and Ethers. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 56 169-173.


Other publications

Refereed (Non-SCI listed)

Black, K. D., Kiemer, M. C. B. and Ezzi, I. A. (1996) Benthic impact, hydrogen sulphide and fish health: field and laboratory studies., in Aquaculture and sea lochs (ed K. D. Black), Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, pp 16-26.

Provost, P. G., Black, K. D., Davies, I. M. and Read, P. A. (1997) Antibiotics in fish farm sediments, in Environmental Pollution: Assessment and Treatment (ed P. Read and J. Kinross), Napier University Press, Edinburgh, pp 7-20.

Boyle, P., Noble, L., Emery, A., Craig, S., Black, K.D. and Overnell, J., 2001.  Development and hatching in cephalopod eggs: a model system for partitioning environmental and genetic effects on development. In: Atkinson, D and Thorndyke, M (eds.): Environment and animal development: genes, life histories and plasticity, pp. 251-267. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd.

Black, K.D. (2001) Mariculture, Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts of, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, eds. J. Steele, S. Thorpe and K. Turekian, Academic Press, London, pages 1578-1584

Cook, E.J. and K.D. Black (2003).  Early colonisation of biological filters suspended in waters adjacent to caged mariculture activity, west Scotland Annales Ser. Hist. nat. 13 (suppl.): 17-20

Black, K.D., 2003. The Biofaqs project:biofiltration and aquaculture: an evaluation of substrate deployment performence within mariculture developments Annales series historia naturalis  13 S:  1-2

Lepper, P.A., Turner, V.L.G., Goodson, A.D. and Black, K.D. (2004) Source levels and spectra emitted by three commercial aquaculture anti-predation devices. Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Underwater Acoustics, ECUA 2004 Delft, The Netherlands, 5-8 July, 2004

Black, K.D. and Cromey, C.J. (2008) Fish farming effects on benthic community changes due to sedimentation. Pages 72–89. GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/UNIDO/WMO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection) 2008. Assessment and communication of environmental risks in coastal aquaculture. Rome, FAO. Reports and Studies GESAMP No. 76: 198 pp.

Black, K.D., Hansen, P.K. and Holmer, M. (2008) Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue: Working Group Report on Benthic Impacts and Farm Siting. 57 pages.

Black, K.D., Cromey, C.J., 2008. The scientific basis of marine fish farm regulation. Science Diliman 20:2, 1-13.

Ferreira, J.G., Aguilar-Manjarrez, J., Bacher, C., Black, K., Dong, S.L., Grant, J., Hofmann, E., Kapetsky, J., Leung, P.S., Pastres, R., Strand, Ø. & Zhu, C.B. 2012. Progressing aquaculture through virtual technology and decision-support tools for novel management. In R.P. Subasinghe, J.R. Arthur, D.M. Bartley, S.S. De Silva, M. Halwart, N. Hishamunda, C.V. Mohan & P. Sorgeloos, eds. Farming the Waters for People and Food. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Phuket, Thailand.  22–25 September 2010. pp. 643–704. FAO, Rome and NACA, Bangkok.


Books and book chapters

Black, K.D. (ed) (1996) Aquaculture and Sea Lochs. SAMS, Oban, 93 pages.

Black, K.D. and Pickering, A. D. (eds) (1998) The Biology of Farmed Fish, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, .415 pp.

Black, K.D. (1998) The environmental interactions associated with fish culture, in The Biology of Farmed Fish (ed K. D. Black and A. D. Pickering), Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, 248-326.

Black, K.D. (ed.) (2001) Environmental Impacts of Aquaculture, Sheffield Academic Press, 214 pages.

Pearson, T.H. and Black, K.D. (2001) The environmental impact of marine fish cage culture, in Environmental Impacts of Aquaculture (ed. K.D. Black), Sheffield Academic Press, pp 1-31

Black, K.D. (2001) Sustainability of Aquaculture, in Environmental Impacts of Aquaculture (ed. K.D. Black), Sheffield Academic Press, 199-212.

Davenport, J., Black, K.D., Burnell, G., Cross, T., Culloty, S., Ekaratne, S., Furness, B., Mulcahy, M. & Thetmeyer, H. (2003). Aquaculture: the ecological issues. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Black, K.D. and Shimmield, G.B., eds., (2003) Biogeochemistry of Marine Systems, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. 372 pages.

Angel, D. L., Katz, T., Eden, N., Spanier, E. and Black, K. D. (2005). Damage control in the coastal zone:improving water quality by harvesting aquaculture-derived nutrients. In Strategic management of marine ecosystems, (ed. E. Levner), pp. 53-64. Springer.

Cromey, C.J., Black, K.D. (2005). Modelling the impacts of finfish aquaculture (chapter 6). In: B.T.Hargrave (ed.) Environmental effects of marine finfish aquaculture. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry (volume 5): Water Pollution, Springer Verlag.

Holmer, M., Black, K. D., Duarte, C. M., Marba, N. and Karakassis, I. (2008). Aquaculture in the Ecosystem, pp. 325. Springer Verlag.

Black, K.D. (2008) Environmental aspects of aquaculture, in Aquaculture, Innovation and Social Transformation, (eds. K. Culver, D. Castle) Springer Science and Business Media B.V. 2008, pp 99-115

Tett, P., K. Black, R. Brennan, E. Cook and K. Davidson (2015).  Sustainable Mariculture at high Latitudes. Chapter 6 in 'Coastal Zones: Solutions for the 21st Century'. J. Baztan, O. Chouinard, B. Jorgensen, P. Tett, J.-P. Vanderlinden and L. Vasseur, eds. Elsevier.

Aleynik, D, Adams, T, Davidson, K, Dale, A, Porter, M, Black, KD & Burrows, M 2018, Biophysical modelling of marine organisms: fundamentals and applications to management of coastal waters: Chapter 3. Pages 66-93, in MN Islam & SE Jorgensen (eds), Environmental Management of Marine Ecosystems: Handbook. Taylor and Francis / CRC Press (USA), USA.


Non-refereed (selected)

C J Cromey, K.D. Black, A.E. Edwards and I. Jack.  (1997) Forcasting the depostion and biological effects of excess carbon from sewage discharges. UKWIR Ltd., London.

Black, K.D. (2000) Needs and suppliers: marine data for management and research.  The West coast of Scotland Digital Atlas initiative, in Proceedings of the Marine Data Seminar,(ed. Ian Oxley), University of St Andrews, pp 15-20.

Cromey, C.J., Nickell, T.D. and Black, K.D. (2000) DEPOMOD A model for predicting the effects of solids deposition from mariculture to the benthos, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban (ISBN 0-9529089-1-3) 120 pages.

Obajimi, O., Glen, I., McKenzie, J. D. and Black, K. D., 2001. Antioxidant and anti-phospholipase activity by marine carotenoids. Faseb Journal, 15 A296-A296.

Black, K.D., Cook, E.J., Jones, K.J., Kelly, M.S., Leakey, R.J., Nickell, T.D., Sayer, M.D.J., Tett, P. and Willis, K. (2002).  Review and synthesis of the environmental impacts of aquaculture.  Report for the Scottish Executive Central Research Unit, 80pp.ISBN 0 7559 3403 2

Tett, P., Edwards, V. and Black, K. (2002) The Scientific Basis of Regulation of Fish Farms in Scotland, review for SEPA. 40 page.

Tett, P., Edwards, V. and Black, K. (2003) The Scientific Basis of Regulation of Fish Farms in Scotland, review for SEPA. Part A2: comments on the Fish Farm Manual, some Annexes and Policy 40 103 pages.

Black, K.D., Blackstock, J., Gillibrand, P., Moffat, C., Needham, H., Nickell, T.D., Pearson, T.H., Powell, H., Sammes, P., Somerfield, P. and Willis, K. (2003) The Ecological Effects of Sealice Medicines, Interim Public Report, 25pages.

Black, K.D., Blackstock, J., Cromey, C.J., Duncan, J., Gee, M., Gillibrand, P., Needham, H., Nickell, T.D., Pearson, T.H., Powell, H., Sammes, P., Somerfield, P., Walsham, P., Webster, L., Willis, K., (2005) The ecological effects of sea lice treatment agents. Scottish Association for Marine  Science, Oban, pp. 286.

Black, K.D. and Wilson, A.M. (2008) ECASA – An ecosystem approach for sustainable aquaculture. Shellfish News 25, 11-13.

Soto, D., Aguilar-Manjarrez, J., Brugère, C., Angel, D., Bailey, C., Black, K., Edwards, P., Costa-Pierce, B., Chopin, T., Deudero, S., Freeman, S., Hambrey, J., Hishamunda, N., Knowler, D., Silvert, W., Marba, N., Mathe, S., Norambuena, R., Simard, F., Tett, P., Troell, M. & Wainberg, A. 2008. Applying an ecosystem-based approach to aquaculture: principles, scales and some management measures. In D. Soto, J. Aguilar-Manjarrez and N. Hishamunda (eds). Building an ecosystem approach to aquaculture. FAO/Universitat de les Illes Balears Expert Workshop. 7–11 May 2007, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings. No. 14. Rome, FAO. pp. 15–35.

Black, K.D. and Wilson, A.M. (2008) Ecasa. Aquaculture Europe 33: 35

Black, KD. 2010. Book review. Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods, B. Dickson, J. Hutton, W.M. Adams (Eds.). Wiley-Blackwell (2009). 382 pp., Paperback, ISBN: 978-1- 4051-6785-7, Hardback 978-1-4051-9142-5. Biological Conservation 143 (2010) 1304–1305

Black, KD.  2012. Book review. Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts, Michel Kaiser, Martin Attrill, Simon Jennings, David N. Thomas, David Barnes, Andrew Brierley, Nicholas Polunin, David Raffaelli, Peter Le B. Williams. Oxford University Press (2011). 528 pp. Biological Conservation 148 (2012) 216–225

Black, KD. 2013. Book review. Plato’s Revenge – Politics in the Age of Ecology by William Ophuls. The MIT Press. 256 p., Biological Conservation 166 (2013) 1–1.

Black, KD. 2013. Book review. Shifting Baselines: The Past and the Future of Ocean Fisheries, Jeremy B.C. Jackson, Karen E. Alexander, Enric Sala (Eds.). Island Press, USA (2011). 312 pp., Biological Conservation 159 (2013) 61

Black, KD (2015) Book review. Alexander, S. and McLeod, A. (eds) 2014. Simple Living in History: Pioneers of the Deep Future. Simplicity Institute, Melbourne, 2014, 242 pp. ISBN-13: 978-0987588494, 24.99 AUD . Biological Conservation, 191:587


Contract reports (selected)

Black K. and Kiemer, M. (1993) Toxicity trial of the Rockwerk product.  Confidential report. DML.

Ezzi, I., Edwards, A., Nickell, T., Griffiths, C., MacDougall, N. and Black, K. (1993) An environmental assessment of a fish farm site in Loch Craignish: a contract for Lakeland fish farms. DML.

Black, KD, Ivan Ezzi, Marius Kiemer, Richard Gowen, Harald Rosenthal, Uwe Waller, Guido Höner, Jaqueline Doyle, Terry Mcmahon and Maria A De M Sampayo.  The interaction between fish farm induced environmental change and fish health in intensive mariculture. Final report to EU for publication. Issuing Date  6 5 94.  267 pp.

Black KD, Marius Kiemer, Uwe Waller, Helmut Thetmeyer and Phil Gatland.  The interactions between hydrodynamics and dissolved oxygen concentration on fish health in intensive mariculture.  Consolidated progress report 1 for AIR PL950855 189pp.

Cromey, C.J., K.D. Black, A.E. Edwards and I. Jack.  Forecasting the depostion and biological effects of excess carbon from sewage discharges. Final report to FRPB, 55pp.

Northcott,S.J. H.F. Kennedy, M.C.B. Kiemer and K.D.Black. (1996) Investigation into the potential for adult sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, to over-winter independently of their salmonid hosts as a mechanism to compensate for the freshwater migrations of the host species.  Report to the Atlantic Salmon Conservation Trust, the Association of Scottish District Fishery Boards, the Awe District Fishery Board and Mr Jeremy Inglis.

Joyce, J., M. C. B. Kiemer and K. D. Black. 1996 Report on pigmentation trial to Hoffman La-Roche.

Black, K. D., MacDougall, N., Kiemer, M. C. B., Gontarek, S. J., Waller, U., Thetmeyer, H. and Gatland, P. (1997) The interactions between hydrodynamics and dissolved oxygen concentration on fish health in intensive mariculture, Final report AIR PL94 0855, European Commission.

Evans, D., Pereira, P. M. F., Black, K., Glorioso, P. D. and Cavill, J. (1997) An environmental desk study of the special co-operation area., BGS.

Perkin, M. and Black, K.D. (1997) The potential of Dendrobaena veneta for vermicomposting fish offal from the salmon farming industry.

Wilding, T.A and Black, K.D. The potential for fisheries enhancement in Loch Fyne. A report to the Loch Fyne Initiative. 62 pp.

Nickell, T.D. and Black, K.D. A report of the hydroraphic conditions and an assessment of the ‘New Concession’ for Culmarex SA., Aguilas, Murcia, Spain. 26p.

Coggan, R. A., Pereira, P. M. F., Shimmield, G. B. and Black, K.D. (1998) A Review of the "Environmental assessment for the proposed exploration drilling operations offshore the Falkland Islands" (Environment & Resource Technology Ltd., ERT 97/061) for the Falkland Islands Government., Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory.

Black, K.D., Benthic and water column sampling on behalf of Statoil (UK) Ltd NW of Lewis, Cruise Report: RV Pelagia, 7 May – 18 May 1998.

Fyfe, J.A.; Pereira,P.; Black, K.D. 1998. Appraisal of environmental data West of Shetland. BGS Technical Report WB/98/21C

Gage,J, Pereira,P, Black,KD. 1998. Quality control report on the analysis of the biological samples from STATOIL Block T43. Final report  to STATOIL UK.

Pereira,PMF, Gordon,JDM, Black,KD, McFeat,G. 1998. A review of research on artificial  baits for creeling. Final report to Highlands and Islands Enterprise. 28p                  

Nickell, T. D., Black, K. D., Provost, P. G., Davies, I. M. & Pearson, T. H. (1998) The recovery of the sea-bed after the cessation of fish farming: benthos and biogeochemistry. ICES CM 1998 V:1.

Black, K.D. (1999) Biotope mapping in Loch Creran, Argyll – the last UK refuge for serpulid reefs. SAMS Newsletter No 19, April 1999, pp12.

Cromey, C., Nickell, T.D. and Black, K.D., 1998. Economic site assessment through modelling the effects of carbon deposition to the benthos from large scale salmon mariculture DEPOMOD. Annual monitoring report to the Natural Environment Research Council Link, D.M.L. Internal report 213/1998. 71 pp.

Pereira, P. and Black, K.D., 1999. "Serpulid (Serpula vermicularis: Polychaeta) reef survey in Rhugh Garbh, Loch Creran - field report". A report to Foster Yeoman. Contract no. EI0489GLKL

Black, K.D. (1999) Last refuge for unique reefs. NERC News Summer 1999

Cromey, C., Nickell, T.D. and Black, K.D., 1999. Economic site assessment through modelling the effects of carbon deposition to the benthos from large scale salmon mariculture DEPOMOD. Annual monitoring report to the Natural Environment Research Council Link, D.M.L. Internal report 214/1999. 83 pp.

Black, K.D. (ed) (2000) The ecological effects of sealice treatment agents, Interim Report 1, Project No. VM0293, 13 pages plus 4 Annexes.

Cromey, C.J., Black, K.D. and Meldrum, D.T. (2000). Measurements of turbulent diffusion in Calbha Bay for Loch Duart Ltd.

Black, K.D., Hughes, D.J., Provost, P.G. and Pereira, P.M.F. (2000) Broad scale survey and mapping of seabed biota in Loch Creran, Argyll. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report F98AA408.

Black, K.D., Sayer, M.D.J., Cook, E.J., Cromey, C.J., Angel, D., Spanier, I., Karakassis, I., Malej, A., Collins, K., Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D. and Lojen, S. (2003) EU Annual Report – BIOFAQs: Biofiltation and Aquaculture: an evaluation of substrate deployment performance with mariculture developmentsQ5RS-2000-30305.

Narayanaswamy, B.E., Howell, K.L, Hughes, D.J., Davies, J.S., Roberts, J.M. and Black, K.D. (2006) Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 7 - Photographic Analysis. pp178; Appendix 380.

Wilding TA, Kelly MS, Black KD. 2006. Alternative marine sources of protein and oil for aquaculture feeds: State of the art and recommendation for further research. The Crown Estate, ISBN 978-0-9553427-4-5.

Wilson, A., Magill, S. and Black, K.D. 2009. Review of environmental impact assessment and monitoring in salmon aquaculture. In FAO. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring in aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 527. Rome, FAO. pp. 455–535.

Linley E.A.S., Wilding T.A., Black K., Hawkins A.J.S. and Mangi S. (2007). Review of the reef effects of offshore wind farm structures and their potential for enhancement and mitigation. Report from PML Applications Ltd and the Scottish Association for Marine Science to the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR), Contract No: RFCA/005/0029P

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Heymans, S.J.J., Hughes, D.J., Shimmield, T.M., Sherwin, T., Forster, I., 2009. A Review of RPS Energy : Environmental Impact Statement Offshore Falkland Islands Exploration Drilling (Licences 028 015) BHP Billiton Petroleum (Falklands) Corporation For The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 18.

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Hughes, D.J., Wilson, B., Shimmield, T.M. 2010. A Review of RPS Energy (Feb 2010): Environmental Impact Statement Borders and Southern Petroleum Plc Offshore Falkland Islands Exploration Drilling, (Licence PL018), for The Falkland Islands Government, SAMS, Oban, pp. 18

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Heymans, S.J.J., Hughes, D.J., Shimmield, T.M., Sherwin, T., Forster, T., 2010. A Review of RPS Energy (Feb 2009): Environmental Impact Statement for Offshore Drilling Licenses PL006, PL007 and PL034 the Falkland Islands on Behalf of Desire Petroleum PLC and RPS Energy(Dec 2009): Environmental Impact Statement Addendum for Offshore Falkland Islands Drilling Programme (Licenses PL003, PL004, PL005, PL006 and PL034) for The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 25.

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Hughes, D.J., Forster, I. 2011. A review of Exploration and Appraisal Drilling Environmental Impact Statement for PL001 (Argos Resources Limited, April 2011), for The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 16.

Black, K.D., Cottier, F., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Hughes, D.J., Forster, I. 2011. A Review of FOGL Exploration Drilling Environmental Impact Statement (Sept 2011), for The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 19.

Magill, S, Black, KD, Kay, D. Stapleton, C., Kershaw, S., Lees, D., Lowther, J., Francis, C., Watkin, J.and Davies, C. (2008)  RISK FACTORS IN SHELLFISH HARVESTING AREAS SARF013/SAMS Report No. 256, Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum, 131 pages,

Shimmield, T.M., Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Hughes, D.J., Sherwin, T., 2010. Final report: Independent Evaluation of Deep-Sea Mine Tailings Placement (DSTP) in PNG. SAMS, Oban, UK, 295 pp.

Black KD, Cromey CJ, Dale, A. and Nickell, TD. (2010) Modelling benthic effects of salmon cage farms in Scotland: driving AutoDEPOMOD with hydrodynamical model outputs. Report to SSPO, TCE, Marine Scotland, 145 pages.

Black, KD and Atkins Ltd (2010) Kelp Farming Feasibility Study for the Whitby Coastal Area. A report for Scarborough Borough Council, 107pp.

Beveridge, C., Cook, E.J., Brunner, L., MacLeod, A., Black, K. Brown, C. & Manson, F.J. (2011). Initial reponse to the invasive carpet sea squirt, Didemnum vexillum, in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 413.24 pp

Nimmo, F., Cook, E. J., Moxey, A. P., Hambrey, J. and Black, K. 2011. Cost benefit analysis of management options for Didemnum vexillum (carpet sea squirt) in Scotland. Report by Hambrey Consulting in association with the Scottish Association for Marine Science and Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management to the Scottish Government Tender Ref: Cr/2011/16

Black, KD, Cromey, CJ, Nickell, TD (2011) SARF030 Final Report: Benthic Recovery Project. 84 pages.

Black KD (2013) Scientific Peer-review of monitoring results from New Zealand King Salmon Farms, for Marlborough District Council, Blenheim, New Zealand, SRSL 00989_P0657_001, 21 Pages.

Black KD, Nickell, TD (2014) Sediment sulphide response to organic loading. Contract report SARF085 - 1. 54 pages.

Black, KD, Dale, A., Forster, I. Fox, C., Howe, J., Hughes, D., Wilson, B. (2014) A Review of Environmental, Social and Health Impact Assessment (ESHIA) for Exploration Drilling Offshore the Falkland Islands  Environmental, Social and Health, Noble Energy Falklands Limited, Rev. 4 (July 2014), for The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 22.

Black, KD, Dale, A., Forster, I. Fox, C., Howe, J., Hughes, D., Risch, D. (2014) A Review of Premier Oil 2015 Exploration Campaign Environmental Impact Statement (29/9/14), Document No: FK-BU-PMO-EV-REP-0003, for Falkland Islands Government, pp 23.

Alexander KA, Gatward I, Parker A, Black KD, Boardman A, Potts T and Thomson E (2014) Aquaculture and growth in aquaculture production. An assessment of the benefits to Scotland. A report to Scottish Government, 160 pages.

Black KD (2014) Review of Councils Preliminary assessments of compliance for 2013 results for Te Pangu, Clay Point, Otanerau and Forsyth Bay, Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand, for Marlborough District Council, SRSL 00989_P0657_002, 4 pages.

Black, K., Dale, A., Fox, C., Forster, I., Howe, J., Narayanaswamy, B., Risch, D.(2015) A Review of Noble Energy Falklands Limited Rhea-1 Exploration Well Environmental Impact Statement V 2.0, 7th May 2015 Document No : 024-15-EHSR-EIS-PA-T4, for Falkland Islands Government, pp. 16

Menzies B, Wood D, Aspray T, Black KD (2016) Finfish Mortalities in Scotland. A report by Enscape Ltd, Herriot-Watt University and SRSL to Zero Waste Scotland (Project 3RP005-502) 78 pages.

Black, KD and Stanley, MS (2016) Feasibility Study – Salmon farm waste capture in New Zealand, for Marlborough District Council, NZ, 15 pages

Black, K and Hughes, A. (2017) Foresight Future of the Sea project: A Review of Evidence of Trends in Aquaculture, Government Office of Science, 38 pages.

Research students: alumni

I have successfully supervised 12 PhD and one MRes students to date:

Paula Pereira

Paul Provost

Stephen Craig

Kemi Obajimi

Rebecca Dean

Richard Corner (as co-supervisor)

Liz Adey

Lindsay Vare (as co-supervisor)

Mark Shields (as co-supervisor)

Peter Schiener (as co-supervisor)

Peter Taylor (as co-supervisor)

Suzi Billing

Joanna Gosling

Caroline Carter (MRes)

Employment history

Since 2017: SAMS Honorary Research Fellow

Oct 1991 - Jul 2017: Principal Investigator in Ecology. SAMS



1989 PhD Lipid Chemistry. St Andrews

1985 BSc (Hons) Chemistry. Stirling