Professor Elizabeth Cottier-Cook

        Head shot of Prof Liz Cottier Cook on fieldwork in a marina

Marine Biologist

I am Head of the United Nations University Associate Institute at SAMS and am passionate for making a difference in developing countries.

I have published >65 peer-reviewed papers on topics such as environmental impacts of aquaculture and marine invasive species.

My 2016 United Nations University Policy Brief on safeguarding the global seaweed industry received coverage in 40 countries, reaching a total viewership >100M.

Contact details:

My research currently focuses on developing biosecurity tools and practices to minimise the introduction and spread of pests (many of which are invasive non-native species) and disease, particularly in developing countries. To date, my research programmes have involved working with a wide range of stakeholders including, the aquaculture and offshore renewable energy sector. I have collaborated with colleagues in China, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, USA, numerous countries in the Mediterranean and most recently the Philippines, Malaysia and Tanzania.

I lead the Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree – Aquaculture, Environment and Society PLUS (, which has awarded over 65 scholarships to EU and international students since 2015.

I am also a member of the Scottish Government Working Group on Marine Non Native Species, the ‘marine’ expert on the GB Non-Native Species Risk Assessment Panel, an external examiner for Bangor University and Chair of the SAMS Athena Swan SAT Committee. I am a handling editor for the journals Aquatic Invasions and BioInvasion Records.

Current projects

GlobalSeaweedSTAR. Programme Leader. Funded by UKRI Global Challenges Research Fund. 2017-21

EMMJMD ACES. Programme leader. Funded by the EU. 2015-19


Selected past projects

European Information System for Alien Species (EU COST). Member. Funded by the EU. 2014-17

GlobalSeaweed. Co-PI. Funded by NERC. 2015-17

ALFF - Algal Friends or Foes. Co-PI. Funded by EU. 2015-19

Biosecurity - Coastal Development: Assessing the potential of variations in the design of coastal development to minimise introduction of invasive non-native species. Director of Studies. Funded by DTP3. 2015-18

EU Horizon Scanning. Funded by EU. 2015

Impacts of Marine INNS. Funded by DEFRA. 2015

Pacific Oyster Survey. Funded by SNH. 2014-15

Early Warning for INNS. Funded by SNH. 2013-14

Marine Biosecurity Planning. Funded by Firth of Clyde Forum / SNH. 2013

Marine Aliens I and II. Funded by Esmée Fairbairn Foundation. 2004-11



Masters in Aquaculture, Environment and Society PLUS: Programme Leader, Module Leader for Environmental Interactions for Aquaculture and the Dissertation and Guest Lecturer at the University of Nantes

Marine Science BSc: Lecturer on Marine Conservation module (Yr 3)


Alumni research students

Rebecca Giesler: Biosecurity and Blue Build. PhD. 2014-17. University of Edinburgh

Claire Canning: Corrosion and biofouling on offshore renewables. PhD. 2014-17. IDCORE

Chris Nall: Marine INNS and offshore wave. PhD. 2011-14. University of Aberdeen

Adrian MacLeod: Provision of refuges for invasive non-native species by marine renewable energy structures. PhD. 2009-12. University of Aberdeen

Coleen Suckling: Calcified marine invertebrates: the effects of ocean acidification. PhD. 2008-11

Karin Boos: Mechanisms of a successful immigration from north-east Asia: settlement dynamics, competitive ability and anti-predatory strategies of Caprella mutica Schurin 1935 in European coastal waters. PhD. 2007-09. Christian-Abrechts-Universität zu Kiel (Germany)

Richard Shucksmith: Biological Invasions:  The role of biodiversity in determining community susceptibility to invasion. PhD. 2004-07. University of Aberdeen

Gail Ashton: Biological Invasions – Quantifying the impact of alien species on marine ecosystems, using the introduction of the amphipod, Caprella mutica to the west coast of Scotland as a case study. PhD. 2003-06. University of Aberdeen.


I have over 25 years’ experience in working on biofouling-related projects with a wide range of maritime-based industries, including the fin and shell-fish aquaculture, recreational yachting, port authorities, commercial shipping and the offshore wave, wind and tidal renewable energy industry.  I am also now working with the UN FAO to develop at Progressive Management Pathway for Seaweed Biosecurity.

Accessing consultancy services from SAMS

SAMS consultancy work is delivered through its wholly owned commercial subsidiary, SAMS Enterprise. SAMS Enterprise operates a comprehensive Quality Management System (QMS) that is accredited to ISO9001:2008 standard, guaranteeing that all projects deliver the best possible service to our customers. All SAMS Enterprise projects are planned by a professional programme manager who oversees a team of dedicated project managers, all of whom are focussed specifically on client delivery, and have scientific experience and technical expertise in fields relevant to their assigned projects.

For further information concerning commercial enterprise opportunities at SAMS, please contact SAMS Enterprise by email ( or phone +44 (0) 1631 559 470.

Peer-reviewed publications (from 2015)

Cottier-Cook EJ et al (2022) A new Progressive Management Pathway for improving seaweed biosecurity. Nature Communications (2022)13:7401. 

Dawon W, Peyton JM, Pescott OL, Adriaens T, Cottier-Cook EJ et al (2022) Horizon scanning for potential invasive non-native species across the United Kingdom Overseas Territories. Conservation Letters, e:12928 

Ndawala MA, Msuya FE, Cabarubias JP, Kambey CSB, Buriyo AS, Mvungi EF, Cottier-Cook EJ (2022) Effect of biosecurity practices and diseases on growth and carrageenan properties of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum cultivated in Zanzibar, Tanzania. J Appl Phycol. 

Nall CR, Schläppy M-L, Cottier-Cook EJ, Guerin AJ (2022) Influence of coating type, colour, and deployment timing on biofouling by native and non-native species in a marine renewable energy context. Biofouling

Msuya FE, Bolton J, Pascal F, Narrain K, Nyonje B, Cottier-Cook EJ (2022) Seaweed farming in Africa: current status and future potential. J Appl Phycol (2022). 

Ndawala MA, Msuya FE, Cabarubias JP, Buriyo A, Cottier-Cook EJ (2021) Seaweed biosecurity in Tanzania: Lessons to be learned from other major plant crops. Environmental Challenges 5: 100319 

Mateo J P, Campbell I, Cottier-Cook E J, Luhan M R J, Ferriols V M E N, Hurtado, A Q (2020) Analysis of biosecurity-related policies governing the seaweed industry in the Philippines. Journal of Applied Phycology

Kevin A. Hughes1, Oliver L. Pescott2, Jodey Peyton2, Tim Adriaens3, Elizabeth Cottier-Cook4, Gillian Key5, Wolfgang Rabitsch6, Elena Tricarico7, David K. A. Barnes1, Naomi Baxter8, Mark Belchier9, Denise Blake8, Peter Convey1, Wayne Dawson10, Danielle Frohlich11, Lauren Gardiner12, Pablo González-Moreno13,14, Ross James9, Chris Malumphy15, Stephanie Martin16, Angeliki F. Martinou17, Dan Minchin18, Andrea Monaco19, Niall Moore5, Simon A. Morley1, Katherine Ross20, Jonathan Shanklin1, Katharine Turvey2, David Vaughan1, Alexander G. C. Vaux21, Victoria Werenkraut22, Ian J. Winfield2 and Helen Roy2 (Submitted). Invasive non-native species likely to threaten biodiversity and ecosystems in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Global Change Biology DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14938

Kambey, C.S.B., Campbell, I., Sondak, C.F.A., Nor, A.R.M., Lim, P.E., Cottier-Cook, E.J. (2020). An analysis of the current status and future of biosecurity frameworks for the Indonesian seaweed industry. J Appl Phycol (2020) doi:10.1007/s10811-019-02020-3

Campbell, I., Kambey, C.S.B., Mateo, J.P., Rusekwa, S.B., Hurtado, A.Q., Msuya, F.E., Stentiford, G.D., Cottier-Cook, E.J. J Appl Phycol (2019).

Ward, G.M., Faisan, J.P, Cottier-Cook, E.J., Gachon, C., Hurtado, A.Q., Lim, P.E., Matoju, I., Msuyu, F., Brodie, J. (2019). A Review of Reported Seaweed Diseases and Pests in Aquaculture in Asia. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. DOI: 10.1111/jwas.12649

PEGASUS - PHYCOMORPH European Guidelines for a Sustainable Aquaculture of Seaweeds, edited by Michèle Barbier, Bénédicte Charrier, Rita Araujo, Susan L. Holdt, Bertrand Jacquemin & Céline Rebours, COST Action FA1406 (2019).  EJ Cottier - Contributor

Gonzalez-Moreno, P., Lassaro, L., Vila, M., Cristina, P., Adriaens, T., Bacher, S., Brundu, G., Copp, G.H., Essl, F., Garcia-Berthou, E., Katsanevakis, S., Moen, T., Luch, F.E., Nentwig, W., Roy, H.E., Srebaliene, G., Talgø, V., Vanderhoeven, S., Andjelković, A., Arbačiauskas, K., Auger-Rozenberg, M-A., Bae, M-J., Bariche, M., Boets, P., Boieiro, M., Borges, P. A., Canning-Clode, J., Cardigos, F., Chartosia, N., Cottier-Cook, E.J.,  Crocetta F., D'hondt, B., Foggi, B., Follak, S., Gallardo, B., Gammelmo, O., Giakoumi, S., Giuliani, C., Fried, G., Jelaska, L.S., Jeschke, J.M., Jover, M., Juárez-Escario, A., Kalogirou, S., Kočić, A., Kytinou, E., Laverty, C., Lozano, V., Maceda-Veiga, A., Marchante, E., Marchante, H., Martinou, A.F., Meyer, S., Minchin, S.,  Montero-Castaño, A., Morais, M.C., Morales-Rodriguez, C., Muhthassim, N., Nagy, Z.A., Ogris, N., Onen, H.,  Pergl, J., Puntila, R., Rabitsch, W., Ramburn, T.T., Rego, C., Reichenbach, F., Romeralo, C., Saul, W-C.,  Schrader, G., Sheehan, R., Simonović, P., Skolka, M., Soares, A.O., Sundheim, L., Tarkan, A.S., Tomov, R., Tricarico, E., Tsiamis, K., Uludağ, A., van Valkenburg, J., Verreycken, H., Vettraino, A.M., Vilar, L., Wiig, O., Witzell, J., Zanetta, A., Kenis, M. (2019). Consistency of impact assessment protocols for non-native species. Neobiota 44:1-25.

Cottier-Cook, E.J., Minchin, D., Geisler, R., Graham, J., Mogg, A., Sayer, M.D., Matejusova, I., (2019). Biosecurity implications of the highly invasive carpet sea-squirt Didemnum vexillum Kott, 2002 for a protected area of global significance. Management of Biological Invasions 10(2):311-323

Roy H.E., Bacher S., Essl F., Adriaens T., Aldridge D.C., Bishop J.D.D., Blackburn T.M., Branquart E., Brodie J., Carboneras C., Cottier-Cook E.J., Copp G.H., Dean H.J., Eilenberg J., Gallardo B., Garcia M., García-Berthou E., Genovesi P., Hulme P.E., Kenis M., Kerckhof F., Kettunen M., Minchin D., Nentwig W., Nieto A., Pergl J., Pescott O.L., Peyton J., Preda C., Roques A., Rorke S.L., Scalera R., Schindler S., Schönrogge K., Sewell J., Solarz W., Stewart A.J.A., Tricarico E., Vanderhoeven S., van der Velde G., Vilà M., Wood C.A., Zenetos A. & Rabitsch W. (2019). Developing a list of invasive alien species likely to threaten biodiversity and ecosystems in the European Union. Global Change Biology 25(3) 1032-1048. Doi: 10.111/gcb.14527

Cottier-Cook, E.J., Beveridge, C., Bishop, J.D.D., Brodie, J., Clark, P.F., Epstein, G., Jenkins, S.R., Johns, D.G., Loxton, J., MacLeod, A., Maggs, C., Minchin, D., Mineur, F. , Sewell, J. and Wood, C.A. (2017). Non-native species. MCCIP Science Review 2017, 47-61, doi:10.14465/2017.arc10.005-nns

Cottier-Cook, E.J., Nagabhatla, N., Badis, Y., Campbell, M., Chopin, T, Dai, W, Fang, J., He, P, Hewitt, C, Kim, G. H., Huo, Y, Jiang, Z, Kema, G, Li, X, Liu, F, Liu, H, Liu, Y, Lu, Q, Luo, Q, Mao, Y, Msuya, F. E, Rebours, C, Shen, H., Stentiford, G. D., Yarish, C, Wu, H, Yang, X, Zhang, J, Zhou, Y, Gachon, C. M. M. (2016). Safeguarding the future of the global seaweed aquaculture industry.  United Nations University (INWEH) and Scottish Association for Marine Science Policy Brief. ISBN 978-92-808-6080-1. 12pp

Gambi, M-C, Galil, B. et al. (2016). “The Ischia Declaration: Management of Bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea:  The Way Forward” EuroMarine -

Foster, V., Geisler, R., Wilson, M., Cook, E.J. (2016). Identifying the physical features of marina infrastructure associated with the presence of non-native species in the UK. Marine Biology 163:173. Doi: 10.1007/s00227-016-2941-8

vCook, E.J., Payne, R.D., MacLeod, A, Brown, S.F. (2016). Marine Biosecurity: protecting indigenous marine species. Research and Reports in Biodiversity Studies 5:1-14.

Macleod, A., Stanley, M., Day, J.G., Cook, E.J. (2016). Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating Marine Renewable Energy generation. Biofouling 32 (3): 261-276. Doi: 10.1080/08927014.2015.1136822

Corsini-Foka, M., Zenetos, A., Crocetta, F, Çinar, M E, Koçac, F., Golani, D., Louizidou, P., Durucan F., Yapici, S., Dias, M., Abecasis, A., Cardigos, D., Cook, EJ. Et al., (2015). Inventory of alien and cryptogenic species of the Dodecanese (Aegean Sea, Greece): Collaborations through coast action training school. Management of Biological Invasions 6 (4): 351-366.

Kelly, M.S., Carboni, S., Cook, E.J., Hughes, A. (2015). Sea Urchin Aquaculture in Scotland. In: Echinoderm Aquaculture (Eds.) Nicholas Brown, Steve Eddy, ISBN: 978-0-470-96038-7, 384pp, Wiley-Blackwell

Tett, P., K. Black, R. Brennan, E. Cook and K. Davidson (2015). Sustainable Mariculture at High Latitudes. Chapter 6 in 'Coastal Zones: Solutions for the 21st Century'. J. Baztan, O. Chouinard, B. Jorgensen, P. Tett, J.-P. Vanderlinden and L. Vasseur, eds. Elsevier. Published June 2015. ISBN: 978-0-12-802748-6

Galil, B., Boero, F., Fraschetti, Pirano, S., Campbell, M., Hewitt, C., Carlton, J., Cook, E.J., Jelmert, A., Macpherson, E., Marchini, A., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., Mckenzie, C., Minchin, D., Ojaveer, H., Olenin, S., Ruiz, G., (2015) "SEACHANGE - The Enlargement of the Suez Canal and introduction of non-indigenous species to the Mediterranean Sea”. Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) Bulletin.

Ojaveer H, Galil BS, Campbell ML, Carlton JT, Canning-Clode J, Cook EJ, et al. (2015) Classification of Non-Indigenous Species Based on Their Impacts: Considerations for Application in Marine Management. PLoS Biol 13(4): e1002130. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002130. IF = 9.34

Galil, B.S., Boero, F., Campbell, M.L., Carlton, J.T., Cook, E.J., Fraschetti, S., Gollasch, S., Hewitt, C.L., Jelmert, A., Macpherson, E., Marchini, A., McKenzie, C., Minchin, D., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., Ojaveer, H., Olenin, S., Piraino, S., Ruiz, G.M. (2015). ‘Double trouble’: the expansion of the Suez Canal and marine bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea. Biological Invasions 17:973-976. DOI 10.1007/s10530-014-0778-y



FAO (2023) The Progressive Management Pathway for Aquaculture Biosecurity – Guidelines for application. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, No. 689. Rome. 


Government/ EU Report (since 2015)

Bermejo, R., Buschmann, A., Capuzzo, E., Cottier-Cook, E., Fricke, A., Hernandez, I., Hofmann, LC, Pereira, R, van der Burg, S., (2022). State of knowledge regarding the potential of macroalgal cultivation in providing climate-related and other ecosystem services.

Macleod, A., Cook, E.J, Hughes, D. & Allen, C. (2015). Investigating the Impacts of Marine Invasive Non-Native Species. A report by SRSL for Natural England & Natural Resources Wales (NECR223), pp. 59

Roy, H.E., Adriaens, T., Aldridge, D.C., Bacher, S., Bishop, J.D.D., Blackburn, T.M., Branquart, E., Brodie, J., Carboneras, C., Cook, E.J., Copp, G.H., Dean, H.J., Eilenberg, J., Essl, F., Gallardo, B., Garcia, M., García-Berthou, E., Genovesi, P., Hulme, P.E., Kenis, M., Kerckhof, F., Kettunen, M., Minchin, D., Nentwig, W., Nieto, A., Pergl, J., Pescott, O., Peyton, J., Preda, C., Rabitsch, W., Roques, A., Rorke, S., Scalera, R., Schindler, S., Schönrogge, K., Sewell, J., Solarz, W., Stewart, A., Tricarico, E., Vanderhoeven, S., van der Velde, G., Vilà, M., Wood, C.A., Zenetos, A (2015) Invasive Alien Species - Prioritising prevention efforts through horizon scanning ENV.B.2/ETU/2014/0016. European Commission.

Tett, P, Fox, C, Cook, EJ, Cottier, F., Crocket, K., Davidson, K., Gowen, R., Greenhill, L., Narayanaswamy, B., Risch, D., Wilding, T. (2015). Response to DEFRA Consultation on Programmes of Measures for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.  SAMS Report 23 April 2015.

Cook, E.J., Beveridge, C., Twigg, G., Macleod, A. (2015).  Assessing the Effectiveness of Early Warning Systems for the Detection of Marine Invasive Non-Native Species in Scottish Waters.  SAMS, Scottish Natural Heritage & Marine Scotland Science Commissioned Report No. 874.


Contract Reports

Helen E. Roy, Jodey M. Peyton, Oliver L. Pescott, Tim Adriaens1, Elizabeth Cottier-Cook, Wayne Dawson, Danielle Frohlich, Chris Malumphy, Angeliki F. Martinou, Dan Minchin, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Steph L. Rorke, Elena Tricarico, Kath Turvey, Ian Winfield (2019). Prioritising Invasive Non-Native Species through Horizon Scanning on the UK Overseas Territories.  UK Government.

Cottier-Cook, E.J. et al. (2018). Technical report for EACEA (31 Nov 2018) – Online submission

Macleod, A., Allen, C., & Cook, E.J. (2016). Assessment of the biological risks associated with the

relocation of the Janice A platform. A report by SRSL for Maersk Oil North Sea UK Ltd., pp. 22


Professional memberships

Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology, 2019 - present

Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, 2019 - present

SUPER TAP Theme Advisory Panel – HEI Representative, 2019 - present

Scottish Government Working Group on Marine Non-Native Marine Species (MASTS representative). Member, 2016-present

ICES Working Group on International Movement and Transfers of Marine Organisms. Member, 2014–present

Expert network for the UK Commission for UNESCO. Member, 2015–present

GB Non-Native Species Risk Assessment Panel. Member, 2018 - present

SAMS Athena Swann SAT Committee. Chair, 2019 - present

UHI Athena Swann Working Group. Member, 2015–present

AURORA Higher Education Leadership Programme, Member, 2015-present

Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, 2011-2019

UHI Research Practitioners Group. Member, 2014–2017

MASTS Graduate School. Member, 2013-2017

Review Panel of Ireland Non-native Invasive Species List. Member, Sept 2012

Advisor to Environment Agency (England) on potential impacts of Caprella mutica (APEM Ltd Report; Oct 2011)

UK Working Group on the invasive tunicate Didemnum vexillum (lead by GB Non-native species secretariat). Member, 2009–2010

Scottish Working Group on the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum (lead by SNH). Member, 2008–2010


Expert advice to regulators / government

Through membership of committees listed above, plus…

Invited witness – Environmental Audit Committee enquiry into Invasive Species, Westminster, Portcullis House, London (2019)

Invited speaker – FAO meeting on Aquaculture Biosecurity (2019)

Invited speaker – Seaweed Cluster Initiative Event, Zanzibar, Tanzania (2018)

Invited expert, UK OTs Workshop on Horizon Scanning for Invasive Species, Grand Cayman, St Helena, Chagos and British Antarctic Territories and Falklands (2018 - 19)

Invited speaker - GCRF Researcher Engagement Event, St Andrews University (28 Sept 2017)

Invited reviewer of Orkney Islands Non-Native Species Biosecurity Plan (2012)

Invited speaker for Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Assessment Group (SOTEAG) Monitoring Committee Meeting (Dec 2012)

Invited expert for new GB Non-native Species Information Portal (GB-NNSIP) (2012)

Invited reviewer of Ireland NIS List (Sept 2012)



Nominated for HISA 'Most Inspiring Lecturer' in 2011 and 2013


Media coverage

Over the last 25 years, I have appeared a number of times on TV (BBC World Service On-line) and on radio, including BBC Radio 1, Radio 4 (Today Programme and Material World), Radio 5 (Countryfile and Radio 5 live) and the World Service (Science in Action), plus BBC Radio Scotland. I’ve also given live interviews with radio station in the US, Australia, South America and St. Helena and provided quotes to journalists from around the world.


Journal editor

Aquatic Invasions, online journal e-ISSN: 1818-5487 (2010-present): Handling Editor

Biological Invasion Records, online journal ISSN: 2242-1300 (2014-present): Handling Editor


Conference organisation

Organiser of Side-Event on Seaweed Aquaculture, FAO COFI-AQ Sub Committee, Trondheim, Norway, 2019

Co-organiser of ACES Cohort 3 Student Conference, University of Crete, 2019

Co-organiser ACES Student Conference, University of Nantes, 2018

Co-organiser – SNH Sharing Good Practice Event – Marine Biosecurity, SAMS, 2016

Co-convenor and invited speaker – Global Seaweed Workshop, with Dr Adeel (UNU-INWEH), SAMS, Oban, 2016

Special Session Organiser – Environmental Biohazards – MASTS Annual Meeting, Glasgow, 2015

Organiser – MASTS Graduate School Marine Policy Day, Edinburgh, 2015

Co-organiser MASTS Special Workshop on Marine Invasives, 2014

Co-organiser, E-COST Training Workshop on Marine Invasives Species Identification, Rhodes, Greece, 2014

Organiser of ASSG Workshop on Marine Biosecurity, SAMS, 2013

Workshop Co-ordinator – Marine Biosecurity at Sharing Good Practice Event, Perth, 2013.

Member of organising and scientific committee for International conference on the Environmental Interactions of Marine Renewables, Orkney, 2012

Co-organiser for Linnean Society Conference on Marine Aliens, London, 2011

Co-organiser for Aquaculture and Biodiversity Session (European Aquaculture Society Meeting, Istanbul, Turkey). 2007

Scientific committee member and session chair for Joint Aquatic Associations conference, 2007

Scientific committee member for the 6th International Crustacean Congress, Glasgow, UK, 2005

Co-organiser for Decommissioning of Offshore Oilrigs Conference (SAMS), 2000


Outreach and public engagement

Over the last 25 years, I have been involved in numerous outreach and public engagement events at SAMS, nationally and internationally, from running at STEM club at a local primary school, to co-ordinating an annual ‘Aquaculture-related’ event at the SAMS Ocean Explorer Centre to speaking to the seaweed farming community in Tanzania at their annual National Seaweed Day.  I’ve also been the invited speaker for numerous schools in Scotland, for the SHELL Education Service, the British Association Festival of Science and for the Pupil Research Initiative – Frontiers of Science programme. 

Employment history

2013-present: Head of SAMS-United Nations University Associate Institute & Senior Lecturer in Marine Biology. SAMS

2006-13: Lecturer in Marine Biology. SAMS

2001-06. PDRA. SAMS

2000-01: Education / Promotion Manager. SAMS



1999 PhD in Invertebrate Aquaculture. Napier University

1995 MSc Marine Resource Development and Protection. Heriot-Watt University

1994 BSc (Hons) Biology. Bristol University