Dr Clive J Fox

        Head-shot showing SAMS fisheries ecologist Dr Clive Fox

Senior Lecturer Fisheries Ecology

I am actively engaged in research, teaching and consultancy related to fisheries and aquaculture. 

I am also a member of national and international scientific committees.

Contact details:

My research interest

Applied research into fisheries and aquaculture issues such as discarding and habitat impacts; Controls upon the population dynamics of marine finfish; Large-scale patterns in the distribution of the fish eggs and larvae and zooplankton in relation to oceanography; Environmental and biological controls on the growth and survival of fish through the egg, larval and juvenile stages; Impacts of climate change on marine finfish; Development of indicators for use in ecosystem-based management; Interactions between the environment and aquaculture and recently broader issues around marine planning and strategy

Current research projects

FuECoMMS (Functionality and Ecological Connectivity of Man-Made Structures): Investigating benthic connectivity impacts around oil and gas installations. An INSITE project funded by UKRI. 2020-23

MarPAMM: Developing tools for managing and monitoring Marine Protected Areas in Northern Ireland, Ireland and Western Scotland. Funded by EU INTERREG VA Programme managed by the Special EU Programmes Body. 2018-22

OneOceanHub: Ocean governance project funded by RCUK. 2019-2022

PERICLES: An EU funded project on the maritime cultural heritage in Europe. 2018-21


Recent projects

EuroMarine: ongoing involvement championing our member institute's involvement.

SIFIDS: Developing an integrated data system for Scottish inshore fisheries. My role is to map scallop stocks using an autonomous underwater vehicle. Funded by the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund. 2016-19

Razor-clam surveys: Developing methodology to survey razor clam beds using combination of towed-video and electrofishing. Funded by Fishing Industry Science Partnership. 2016-17 - ongoing involvement in RAZOR surveys in Scottish Govenment trial electrofisheries

Survivability Nephrops discards II: Co-PI with Dr Amaya Albalat, Uni Stirling - Estimating survivability of post-trawled discarded Nephrops. Funded by Fisheries Innovation Scotland. 2016-17

Wildweed: Looking at whether harvesting of kelp could be a diversification opportunity for Scottish (inshore) fishers. Co-PI. Funded by Highlands and Islands Enterprise. 2017

Workshop on Ecosystem based fisheries: Participant in workshop exploring ecosystem-based management issues. Funded by Fisheries Innovation Scotland. 2016-17


Marine Science BSc - module leader 3rd year / level 9 'Fisheries Ecology'

Marine Science BSc - module leader 4th year / level 10 'Environmental Impact Assessment'


Postgraduate taught

IDCORE - lecturer


Current research students

Chloe Blackman (UHI PhD student): Ecology impacts of razor clam electrofishing. 2020-23

Euan Mackenzie (UHI PhD student): Effects of electricity cabling on benthic priority marine features. 2019-22

Monika Kosecka (UHI PhD student) Acoustic detection of gadoid spawning. 2019-22


Alumni research students


Edward Lavender (St Andrews 2018): Climate impacts coastal fish

Karen Boswarva (St Andrews MSc student 2015): Jellyfish polyps in marinas

Rachel Seary (St Andrews MSc student 2015): Variations in scallop growth

James Rimmer (St Andrews MSc student 2015): Growth rates of spurdog

James Rimmer (St Andrews 2015): Ecosystem-based marine management

Craig Morton (St Andrews MRes student 2014): Jellyfish polyps in marinas

Eleni Levanou (St Andrews MRes student 2014): Plankton seasonality in Firth of Lorn


Clare Hill (UHI PhD, 2021): Foodweb modelling nothern North Sea 

Karen Boswarva (UHI PhD, 2020): Habitat mapping using autonomous underwater vehicles

Jacob Bentley (UHI PhD, 2020): Food-web modelling of the Irish Sea

Ismet Saygu (Cukurova University, Turkey PhD 2019): Foodweb modelling Bay of Mersin

Chad Widmer (St Andrews, PhD 2017): Jellyfish polyp ecology

Raeanne Miller (UHI PhD, 2014): Renewable devices as stepping stones

James Kennedy (Uni Liverpool PhD student 2003-06): Reproduction in plaice


Research degree examiner / thesis advisor

James Bennett (MSc - 2016, University Nottingham): External examiner

Neil Clark (PhD - 2015, SAMS UHI): Internal examiner

Rebecca Geisler (PhD - 2015-18, University Edinburgh): Thesis panel

Riccardo Arosio (PhD - 2-14-17, SAMS UHI): Thesis panel

Kathy Dunlop (PhD - 2013, Glasgow University): External examiner

Bernadette O'Niell (Phd - 2012, UIG Galway): External examiner

Stephanie Lelievre (PhD - 2010, IFREMER, France): External examiner

Lindsay Wilson (MSc - 2009, University Aberdeen): Internal Examiner

Enrique Duval (PhD - 2008, University Liverpool): External examiner

I have 25+ years of experience working on fisheries projects and have an extensive knowledge of the Scottish fishing industry, working both with the Fisheries Industry Science Initiative and local fishers.

I have recently been working on projects on razor-clam stock assessment and survival of discarded Nephrops from trawlers operating in the Minches and Firth of Forth.

I also evaluate data requirements for improving inshore fisheries management which involves close collaboration with the Inshore Fisheries Groups in the Clyde and Moray Firth.

I have also written and contributed to numerous technical reports including peer-review of fish biology and fisheries aspects of Environmental Impact Assessments.

Accessing consultancy services from SAMS

SAMS consultancy work is delivered through its wholly owned commercial subsidiary, SAMS Research Services Ltd. (SRSL). SRSL operates a comprehensive Quality Management System (QMS) that is accredited to ISO9001:2008 standard, guaranteeing that all projects deliver the best possible service to our customers. All SRSL projects are planned by a professional programme manager who oversees a team of dedicated project managers, all of whom are focussed specifically on client delivery, and have scientific experience and technical expertise in fields relevant to their assigned projects. For further information concerning commercial enterprise opportunities at SAMS, please contact SRSL by email (info@srsl.com) or phone +44 (0) 1631 559 470.


Peer reviewed publications

McGeady R, Runya RM, Dooley JSG, Howe JA, Fox CJ, Wheeler AJ, Summers G, Callaway A, Beck S, Brown LS, Dooly G, McGonigle C (2023) A review of new and existing non-extractive techniques for monitoring marine protected areas. Front. Mar. Sci. 10:1126301. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2023.1126301 

Martino, S., Azzopardi, E., Fox, C., Chiaroni, E., Payne, E.Y. & Kenter, J. (2021) The importance of local fisheries as a cultural attribute: insight from a discrete choice experiment of seafood consumers. Maritime Studies, In review.

Fox, C.J. (2022) Scoring the status of UK shared and national fish stocks around the time of Brexit. Marine Policy, 135: 104851.

Lavender, E., Fox, C.J., & Burrows, M.T. (2021) Modelling the impacts of climate change on the relative abundance of thermal habitat suitability for shallow-water marine fish at a global scale. PLoS ONE, 16: e0258184. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0258184.

Runya, R.M., McGonigle, C., Quinn, R., Howe, J., Collier, J., Fox, C., Dooley, J., O’Loughlin, R., Calvert, J., Scott, L., Abernethy, C. & Evans, W. (2021) Examining the links between multi-frequency multibeam backscatter data and sediment grain size. Remote Sensing, 13, 8:1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081539.

Bentley, J.W., Lundy, M.G., Howell, D., Beggs, S.E., Bundy, A., de Castro, F., Fox, C.J., Heymans, J.J., Lynam, C.P., Pedreschi, D., Schuchert, P., Serpetti, N., Woodlock, J., & Reid, D.G. (2021) Refining fisheries advice with stock-specific ecosystem information. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8(346). doi:10.3389/fmars.2021.602072.

Saygu, I., Heymans, J.J., Fox, C., Özbilgin, H., Bentley, J.W., Eryaşar, A.R. & Gökçe. G. (2020) Community-level impacts of trawl selectivity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea assessed using an ecosystem modelling approach. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 77 (7-8), 2918–2932. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsaa167.

Bentley, J.W., Serpetti, N., Fox, C., Heymans, J.J. & Reid, D. (2020) Retrospective analysis of the influence of environmental drivers on commercial stocks and fishing opportunities in the Irish Sea. Fisheries Oceanography, 29 (5), 415-435. doi:10.1111/fog.12486.

Fox, C.J., Albalat, A., Valentinsson, D., Nilsson, H.C., Armstrong, F., Randall, P. & Catchpole, T.L. (2020) Survival rates for Nephrops norvegicus discarded from Northern European trawl fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 77, 1698-1710, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsaa037.

Boswarva, K.L., Howe, J.A., Obando, R., Fox, C., Narayanaswamy, B.E., Häussermann, V. & Abernethy, C. (2020) Habitat mapping in the fjords of the Chilean Patagonia using an autonomous underwater vehicle. In: Seafloor geomorphology as benthic habitat: Geohab Atlas of Seafloor Geomorphic Features and Benthic Habitats. P.T. Harris, E. Baker (eds) Elsevier, 337-353.

Saygu, I., Heymans, J.J., Fox, C.J., Özbilgin, H., Eryaşar, A.R. & Gökçe, G. (2020) The importance of alien species to the food web and bottom trawl fisheries of the Northeastern Mediterranean, a modelling approach. Journal of Marine Systems, 202, 103253. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2019.103253

Burrows, M., Bates, A.E., Costello, M., Edwards, M., Edgar, G., Fox, C., Halpern, B.S., Hiddink, J.G., Pinsky, M., Batt, R., Garcia Molinos, J., Payne, B.L., Schoeman, D. & Stuart-Smith, R.D. & Poloczanska, E.S. (2019) Ocean community warming responses explained by thermal affinities and temperature gradients. Nature Climate Change, 9, 959-963. doi:10.1038/s41558-019-0631-5

Bentley, J.W., Hines, D. E., Borrett, S.R., Serpetti, N., Hernandez-Milian, G., Fox, C., Heymans, J.J. & Reid, D.G. (2019) Combining scientific and fishers’ knowledge to co-create indicators of food web structure and function. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsz121.

Fox, C.J. & McLay, A. & Dickens, S. (2019) Development and application of electrofishing with towed video as a new survey method for razor clams (Ensis). Fisheries Research, 214, 76-84. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2019.01.027.

Bentley, J.W., Serpetti, N., Fox, C., Heymans, J.J. & Reid, D.G. (2019) Fishers’ knowledge improves the accuracy of food web model predictions. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsz003.

Bentley, J., Hines, D., Borrett, S., Serpetti, N., Fox, C., Reid, D.G. & Heymans, J.J. (2019) Diet uncertainty analysis strengthens model-derived indicators of food-web structure and function. Ecological Indicators, 98, 239-250. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.11.008.

Boswarva, K., Butters, A., Fox, C.J., Howe, J.A., Narayanaswamy, B. (2018) Improving marine habitat mapping using high-resolution acoustic data; a predictive habitat map for the Firth of Lorn, Scotland. Continental Shelf Research, 168:39-47. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2018.09.005.

Benjamins, S., Fox, C.J., Last, K. & McCarty, C.E. (2018) Individual identification of flapper skate (Dipturus intermedius) using a baited camera lander. Endangered Species Research, 37, 37-44. http://dx.doi.org/2010.3354/esr00911.

de Jong, K., Clara, M., Amorim, P, Fonseca, P.J., Fox, C. & Heubel, K.U. (2017) Noise can affect acoustic communication and subsequent spawning success in fish. Marine Pollution Bulletin In press. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.003.

Graziano, M., Fox, C.J., Alexander, K., Pita, C., Heymans, S.J.J., Crumlish, M., Hughes, A., Ghanawi, J. & Cannella, L. (2017) Does consolidation bring resilience? – Lessons from a multidisciplinary analysis and comparison of two industrial sectors - farmed Atlantic salmon and North-east Atlantic mackerel. Marine Policy 87, 301-313. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2017.10.014.

Fox, C.J., Benjamins, S., Masden, E. A. & Miller, R. (2017) Challenges and opportunities in monitoring the impacts of tidal-stream energy devices on marine vertebrates. Reviews in Sustainable and Renewable Energy, 81, 1926-1938. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.004.

Höffle, H., van Damme, C., Fox, C., Lelièvre, S., Loots, C., Nash, R.D.M., Vaz, S., Wright, P.J. & Munk, P. (2017) Linking spawning ground extent to environmental factors - patterns and dispersal during the egg phase of four North Sea fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 75, 357-374. doi:10.1139/cjfas-2016-0310.

Albalat, A., Collard, A. McAdam, B., Coates, C.J. & Fox, C.J. (2016) Physiological condition, short-term survival, and predator avoidance behavior of discarded Norway Lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) (2016) Journal of Shellfish Research, 35, 1053-1065. doi:10.2983/035.035.0428.

Widmer, C., Fox, C.J. & Brierley, A.S. (2016) Effects of temperature and salinity on four species of north-eastern Atlantic scyphistomae (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 559, 73-88. doi:2010.3354/meps11879.

Bundy, A., Chuenpagdee, R., Boldt, J., Borges, M., Lamine , C., Diallo, I., Fox, C., Fulton, B., Gazihan, A., Jarre, A., Jouffre, D., Kleisner, K., Knight, B., Link, J., Matiku, P., Masski, H., Moutopoulos, D., Piroddi, C., Raid, T., Sobrino, I., Tam, J., Thiao, D. Torres, M., Tsagarakis, K., van der Meeren, G., Shin, Y. (2016) Strong fisheries management and governance positively impact ecosystem status. Fish and Fisheries, 18, 412-439. doi:10.1111/faf.12184.

Coll, M., Shannon, L.J., Kleisner, K.M., Juan-Jordá, M.J., Bundy, A., Akoglu, A.G., Banaru, D., Boldt, J.L., Borges, M.F., Cook, A., Diallo, I., Fu, C., Fox, C., Gascuel, D., Gurney, L.J., Hattab, T, Heymans, J.J., Jouffre, D., Knight, B.R., Kucukavsar, S., Large, S.I., Lynam, C., Machias, A., Marshall, K.N., Masski, H., Ojaveer, H., Piroddi, C., Tam, J., Thiao, D., Thiaw, M., Torres, M.A., Travers-Trolet, M., Tsagarakis, K., Tuck, I., van der Meeren, G.I., Yemane, D., Zador, S.G. and Shin, Y.J. (2016) Ecological indicators to capture the effects of fishing on biodiversity and conservation status of marine ecosystems. Ecological Indicators, 60, 947-962. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.08.048.

Kleisner, K.M., Coll, M., Lynam, C.P., Bundy, A., Shannon, L., Shin, Y.-J., Boldt, J.L., Maria, F.B., Diallo, I., Fox, C., Gascuel, D., Heymans, J.J., Juan Jordá, M.J., Jouffre, D., Large, S.I., Marshall, K.N., Ojaveer, H., Piroddi, C., Tam, J., Torres, M.A., Travers-Trolet, M., Tsagarakis, K., van der Meeren, G.I., Zador, S. (2015) Evaluating changes in marine communities that provide ecosystem services through comparative assessments of community indicators. Ecosystem Services, 16, 413-429. doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.02.002.

Gascuel, D., Coll, M., Fox, C., Guénette, S., Guitton, J., Kenny, A., Knittweis, L., Nielsen, R.J., Peit, G., Raid, T., Travers-Trolet, M. & Shephard, S. (2014) Fishing impact and good environmental status in European seas: a diagnosis from stock-based and ecosystem indicators. Fish and Fisheries, 17:31-55. doi:1111/faf.12090.

Fox, C.J., Targett, T.E., Ciotti, B.J., de Kroon, K, Horstmeyer, L., & Burrows, M. (2014) Size of 0-group plaice during late summer is determined by local habitat at Scottish west coast nursery grounds. Journal of Sea Research, 88, 59-66. doi:10.1016/j.seares/2013.12.015.

Heath, M.R., Preedy, K.F., Culling, M.A., Crozier, W.W., Fox, C.J., Gurney, W.S.C., Hutchinson, W.F., Nielsen, E.E., O’Sullivan, M., Righton, D.A., Speirs, D.C., Taylor, M.I., Wright, P.J., & Carvalho, G.R. (2014) Combination of genetics and spatial modelling highlights the sensitivity of cod (Gadus morhua) population diversity in the North Sea to distributions of fishing. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71, 794-807. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst185.

Comerford, S., Brophy, D., Fox, C.J., Taylor, N., van der Veer, H.W., Nash, R.D.M. & Geffen, A.J. (2013) Temperature effect on growth and larval duration of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in three regions of the Northeast Atlantic Marine Ecology Progress Series, 476, 215-226. doi:10.3354/meps10118.

Greenstreet, S.P.R., Rossberg, A.G., Fox, C.J., Le Quesne, W.J.F., Blasdale, T., Boulcott, P., Mitchell, I., Millar, C. & Moffat, C.F. (2012) Demersal fish biodiversity: species-level indicators and trends based targets for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69, 1789-1801. 10.1093/icesjms/fss148.

Fox, C.J., Taylor, M.., van der Kooij, J., Pascoal, S., Lallias, D., Maillard, M., Taylor, N. Milligan, S.M., Albaina, A. & Hunter, E. (2012) Identification of marine fish egg predators using molecular probes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 462, 205-218. doi:10.3354/meps09748.

Hunter, E., Taylor, N., Fox, C.J., Maillard, M. & Taylor, M.I. (2012) Effectiveness of TaqMan probes for detection of fish eggs and larvae in the stomach contents of a teleost predator. Journal of Fish Biology, 81, 320-328. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03298.x.

Plirú, A., van der Kooij, J., Engelhard, G.H., Fox, C.J., Milligan, S.P., and Hunter, E. (2012) Sprat feeding behaviour, selective predation, and impact on plaice egg mortality. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69, 1019-1029. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fss081.

Callaway, R., Shinn, A.P., Grenfe, S.E., Bron, J.E., Burnell, G., Cook, E.J., Crumlish, M., Cullotys, S., Davidson, K., Ellis, R.P., Flynn, K.J., Fox, C., Green, D.M., Hays, G.C., Hughes, A., Johnston, E., Lowe, C.D., Lupatsch, I., Malham, S., Mendzil, A.F., Nickell, T. Pickerel, T., Rowley, A.F., Stanley, M.S. Tocher, D.R., Turnbull, J.F., Webb, G., Wootton, E. and Shields, R. (2012) Climate change and marine aquaculture in the UK. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 22, 389-421. doi:10.1002/aqc.2247.

Lelievre, S., Vaz, S. & Fox C. (2012) The effectiveness of the continuous underway fish egg sampler compared with standard vertical plankton hauls for sampling the eggs of demersal species in the southern North Sea. Fisheries Oceanography, 21, 109-124 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2012.00613.x.

Albaina, A., Taylor, M.I. & Fox, C.J. (2012) Molecular detection of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) remains in the stomachs of potential predators on a Scottish flatfish nursery ground. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 444, 223-238. doi:10.3354/meps09439.

Frost, J.R. Denda, A., Fox, C.J., Jacoby, C.A., Koppelmann, R.M. Nielsen, St. John, M.H., Marsh, A., Youngbluth, J. (2012) Abundance, distribution and trophic links of gelatinous zooplankton on Dogger Bank, North Sea. Marine Biology, 159, 239-253. doi:10.1007/s00227-011-1803-7.

Albaina, A., Fox, C.J., Taylor, N., Hunter, E., Maillard, M. & Taylor, M.I. (2010) A TaqMan real-time PCR based assay targeting plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) DNA to detect predation by the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) and the shore crab (Carcinus maenas L.) -Assay development and validation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 391, 178-189. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2010.06.029.

Watts, P.C., Kay, S.M., Wolfenden, D., Fox, C.J., Geffen, A.J., Kemp, S.J. & Nash, R.D.M. (2010) Temporal patterns of spatial genetic structure and effective population size in European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) along the west coast of Scotland and in the Irish Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67, 607-616, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsp274.

Munk, P., Fox, C.J., Bolle, Loes J., Van Damme, Cindy J.G., Fossum, P. & Kraus, G. (2009) Spawning of North Sea fishes linked to hydrographic features. Fisheries Oceanography, 18, 458-469, doi:1111/j.1365-2419.2009.00525.x.

van Damme, C.J.G., Bolle, L.J., Fox, C.J., Fossum, P., Kraus, G., Munk, P., Rohlf, N., Witthames, P.R. & Dickey-Collas, M. (2009) A reanalysis of North Sea plaice spawning-stock biomass using the annual egg production method. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66, 1999-2011

Fox, C.J., McCloghrie, P. & Nash, R.D.M. (2009) Potential transport of plaice eggs and larvae between two apparently self-contained sub-populations in the Irish Sea. Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Science, 81, 381-389, doi:1016/j.ecss.2008.10.024.

Pitois, S.G., Shaw, M., Fox, C.J. & Frid, C.L.J. (2009) A new fine-mesh zooplankton time series from the Dove sampling station (North Sea). Journal of Plankton Research, 31, 337-343, doi:10.1093/plankt/fbn121.

Pitois, S.G. & Fox, C.J. (2008) Empirically modelling the potential effects of changes in temperature and prey availability on the growth of cod larvae in UK shelf seas. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65, 1559–1572, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsn150.

Goodsir, F., Armstrong, M.J. Witthames, P.R. Maxwell, D.L. & Fox, C.J. (2008) The use of species-specific TaqMan probes for identifying early stage gadoid eggs following formaldehyde fixation. ICES Journal of Marine Research, 65, 1573-1577, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsn180.

Fox, C.J. & Aldridge, J.N. (2008) Simulating the marine environment and its use in fisheries research. In, Advances in fisheries Science, 50 years on from Beverton and Holt, Blackwell Science, 399-417

Fox, C.J., Taylor, M, Dickey-Collas M, Fossum P., Kraus G., Rohlf N., Munk P., van Damme M.C.J., Bolle L., Maxwell, D. & Wright, P. (2008) Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 275B, 1543–1548, doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0201.

Kennedy, J., Withames, P.R., Nash, R.D.M. & Fox, C.J. (2008) Is fecundity in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) down-regulated in response to reduced food intake during autumn? Journal of Fish Biology, 72, 78-92, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01651.x.

van der Molen, J., Fox, C.J., Rogers, S. & McCloghrie, P. (2007) Dispersal pathways of fish early life stages in the Irish Sea. Journal of Sea Research, 58, 313-330, 10.1016/j.seares.2007.07.003.

Fox, C.J., Geffen, A.J., Bunn, N., Davison, P., McCloghrie, P., Nash, R.D.M. & Rossetti, H. (2007) Birth-date selection in early life stages of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa ) in the eastern Irish Sea (British Isles). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 345, 255-269, doi.10.3354/meps06967

Roques, S., Fox, C.J., Villasana, M.I. & Rico, C. (2006) The complete mitochondrial genome of the whiting, Merlangius merlangus and the haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus: a detailed genomic comparison among closely related species of the Gadidae family. Gene, 383, 12-23, 10.1016/j.gene.2006.06.018.

Geffen, A.J., Fox, C.J.& Nash, R.D.M. (2006) Temperature dependent development rates of cod (Gadus morhua) eggs. Journal of Fish Biology, 69, 1060-1080, 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006.01181.x.

Pitois, S. & Fox, C.J. (2006) Long-term changes in zooplankton biomass concentration and mean size over the Northwest European shelf inferred from Continuous Plankton Recorder data. ICES Journal Marine Science, 63, 785-798, 10.1016/j.icesjms.2006.03.009.

Fox, C.J., McCloghrie, P., Young, E.F. & Nash, R.D.M. (2006) The importance of individual behaviour for successful settlement of juvenile plaice - a modelling and field study in the eastern Irish Sea. Fisheries Oceanography, 15, 301-313, 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2005.00396.x.

Blanchard, J.L., Mills, C., Jennings, S., Fox, C.J., Rackham, B., Eastwood, P. & O’Brien C.M. (2005) Distribution-abundance relationships for North Sea cod (Gadus morhua): observation versus theory. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 2001-2009, 10.1139/F05-109.

Fox, C.J.,  Taylor, M.I., Pereyra, R., Villasana-Ortiz, M.I. & Rico, C. (2005) TaqMan DNA technology confirms previous over-estimation of cod (Gadus morhua) egg abundance in the Irish Sea: implications for the assessment of the cod stock and mapping spawning areas using egg based methods. Molecular Ecology, 14, 879-884, doi.10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02439.x.

Fox, C.J., Folkvord, A. & Geffen, A.J. (2003) Otolith micro-increment formation in herring (Clupea harengus) larvae growing under high and low growth rates. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 264, 83-94. www.int-res.com/articles/meps2003/264/m264p083.pdf.

Clark, R.A., Fox, C.J., Viner, D. & Livermore, M. (2003) North Sea cod and climate change – modelling the effects of temperature on population dynamics. Global Change Biology, 9, 1669-1680, 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00685.x.

Fox, C.J., Blyth, R. & Geffen, A. (2003) Temperature dependent development rates of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) eggs from the Irish Sea. Journal of Plankton Research, 25, 1319-1330, doi.10.1093/plankt/fbg099.

Dickey-Collas, M., Fox, C.J., Nash, R.D.M. & O’Brien, C.M. (2003) Plaice egg mortality: can we determine survivorship? Journal of Sea Research, 50, 211-225, 10.1016/S1385-1101(03)00082-0.

Planque, B., Fox, C.J., Saunders, M.A. & Rockett, P. (2003) On the prediction of short-term changes in the recruitment of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) using statistical temperature forecasts, Scientia Marina, SAP Symposium Proceedings, 67 (Suppl. 1), 211-218, icm.csic.es/scimar/PDFs/26planque.pdf.

Taylor, M.I., Fox, C.J., Rico, I. & Rico, C. (2002) Species-specific probes for simulataneous identification of the eggs of cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus). Molecular Ecology Notes, 2, 599-601, 10.1046/j.1471-8278. 2002.00269.x.

Tytler, P., Fox, C.J. & Folkvord, A. (2002) Glycoconjugates in the otolithic membrane of herring larvae: a possible framework for encoding the life history recorder in fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 61, 39-49, 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2002.tb01735.x.

Fox, C. J. (2001) Recent trends in stock-recruitment of Blackwater herring in relation to larval production. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 58, 750-762, 10.1006/jmsc.2001.1063

Fox, C.J., Planque, B. & Darby, C.D. (2000) Synchrony in the recruitment time-series of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) around the United Kingdom and the influence of sea temperature. Journal of Sea Research, 44, 159-168, doi.10.1016/S1385-1101(00)00039-3.

Fox, C. J. & Aldridge, J. N. (2000) Hydrographic circulation and the dispersal of herring larvae in the Blackwater Estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 921-928, Not available electronically

Temple, G., Fox, C.J., Stewart, R. & Johnston, I.A. (2000) Variability in muscle growth characteristics during the spawning season in a natural population of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 205, 271-281, int-res.com/articles/meps/205/m205p271.pdf.

Fox, C. J., O'Brien, C. M., Dickey-Collas, M. & Nash, R. D. M. (2000) Patterns in the spawning of cod (Gadus morhua L.) sole (Solea solea) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) in the Irish Sea as determined by generalised additive modelling. Fisheries Oceanography, 9, 50-61, doi.10.1046/j.1365-2419.2000.00120.x.

O’Brien, C.M., Fox, C.J., Planque, B. & Casey, J. (2000) North Sea cod and climate change. Nature, 404, 142, 10.1038/35004654.

Fox, C.J., Harrop, R. & Winpenny, A. (1999) Feeding ecology of herring (Clupea harengus) larvae in the turbid Blackwater estuary. Marine Biology, 134, 353-365, 10.1007/s002270050552.

Planque, B. & Fox, C.J. (1998) Interannual variability in temperature and the recruitment of Irish Sea cod. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 172, 101-105, int-res.com/articles/meps/172/m172p101.pdf.

Fox, C.J. (1996) Length changes in herring (Clupea harengus) larvae: effects of capture and storage in formaldehyde and alcohol. Journal of Plankton Research, 18, 483-493, 10.1093/plankt/18.4.483.

Dickey-Collas, M., Gowen, R.J. & Fox, C.J. (1996) Distribution of larval and juvenile fish in the Western Irish Sea: Relationship to phytoplankton, zooplankton biomass and recurrent physical features. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 169-181, 10.1071/MF9960169.

Fox, C.J., Blow, P., Brown, J.H. & Watson, I. (1994) The effect of various processing methods on the physical and biochemical properties of shrimp head meals and their utilization by juvenile Peneaus monodon Aquaculture, 122, 209-226, doi.10.1016/0044-8486(94)90511-8.

Briggs, M.R.P., Brown, J.H. & Fox, C.J. (1994) The effect of dietary lipid and lecithin levels on the growth, survival, feeding efficiency, production and carcass composition of post-larval Peneaeus monodon Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 25, 279-294, Not available electronically

Fox, C.J. (1993) The effect of dietary chitin on the growth, survival and chitinase levels in the digestive gland of juvenile Peneaus monodon (Fab.). Aquaculture, 109, 39-49, 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90484-G.

Fox, C.J., Gamble, J., Sargent, J.R. & Tytler, P. (1990) Liposome ingestion - A novel technique for studying fish larval nutrition. In: Trophic Relationships in the Marine Environment, Proceedings of the 24th European Marine Biology Symposium, 1990, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Scotland, pp. 578-587, Aberdeen University Press, Not available electronically

Falk-Petersen, S., Sargent, J.R., Fox, C., Falk-Petersen, I.B., Haug, T. & Kjorsvik, E. (1989) Lipids in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hipposglossus) eggs from planktonic samples in northern Norway. Marine Biology, 101, 553-556, 10.1007/BF00541658.


Non peer reviewed publications

Heath, M., Bailey, D. M., Campbell, S., Cook, R., Diele, K., Fernandes, P., Fox, C., James, M., Kaiser, M. J., Marshall, T., Stewart, B.D. and Speirs, D. (2022). The Scottish Parliament, The Rural Affairs, Islands and Natural Environment Committee Call for views on The Sea Fish (Prohibition on Fishing) (Firth of Clyde) Order 2022 (SSI 2022/5): Response from members of the Marine Alliance or Science and Technology Scotland Fisheries Forum (MASTS FF), and the Clyde 2020 Research Advisory Group (C2020 RAG). 7 pp.

WGEAWESS (2021) Celtic Seas ecoregion - Ecosystem overview, ICES, 37 pp. doi:10.17895/ices.advice.9432.

Fox, C.J. (2021) Report on razor clam surveys in Largo Bay (Firth of Forth), Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science, Vol 12 No 10, 33 pp. doi:10.7489/12381-1.

Hill, C.E., Bentley, J.W., Serpetti, N., Fox, C., Angus, C., Heymans, J.J. (2021) Modelling the trophic interaction, structure, and function of the northern North Sea food web. Ecopath Technical Report. Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban. U.K. Report 299, 115 pp. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11303.06561.

ICES (2020) ICES Working Group on Electrical Trawling (WGELECTRA). ICES Scientific Reports, 2, Issue 37, Copenhagen, 115 pp. http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/ Expert%20Group%20Report/EOSG/2020/WGELECTRA%20Report%202020.pdf

Wright, P.J., Pinnegar, J.K., Fox, C. (2020) Impacts of climate change on fish, relevant to the coastal and marine environment around the UK. Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership. 28 pp.

Bates, C.R., Chocholek, M., Fox, C., Howe, J., Jones, N. (2019) Scottish Inshore Fisheries Integrated Data System (SIFIDS): Development of a Novel, Automated Mechanism for the Collection of Scallop Stock Data. MASTS, 93 pp.

Bentley, J.W., Serpetti, N., Fox, C., Reid, D. & Heymans, J.J. (2019) Modelling the food web in the Irish Sea in the context of a depleted commercial fish community. Part 2: ICES Ecopath with Ecosim Key Run. Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, SAMS report XX., 79 pp.

Fernandes, P., Cook, R., Baudron, A., Fallon, N., Fox, C., Hammond, P., Heath, M., Ransijn, J., Serpetti, N., Smout, S. & MacDonald, P. (2019) ICES advice on West of Scotland cod needs to be reconsidered in the light of new evidence. MASTS Policy Brief, 2 pp.

Wright, P.J., Pinnegar, J.K. & Fox, C., (2019) Impacts of climate change on fish, relevant to the coastal and marine environment around the UK. Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership

Vare, L.L., Howe, J.A., Hughes, D., Dale, A., Cottier, F. & Fox, C.J. (2018) Sampling and analysis plan for proposed FY19 DSTP studies for Lihir. A report by SRSL for LGL. 88 pp. Commercial in confidence.

Vare, L.L., Howe, J.A., Hughes, D., Dale, A., Cottier, F. & Fox, C.J. (2018) Lihir Deep Sea Tailings Placement Independent Technical Review: Task 1. A report by SRSL for LGL, 90 pp. Commercial in confidence.

Vare, L.L., Howe, J.A., Hughes, D.J., Dale, A., Cottier, F. & Fox, C.J. (2018b) Lihir Deep Sea Tailings Placement Independent Technical Review: Task 2. A report by SRSL for LGL, 103 pp. Commercial in confidence.

Bentley, J. W., Serpetti, N., Fox, C., Reid, D. & Heymans, J. J. (2018) Modelling the food web in the Irish Sea in the context of a depleted commercial fish community. Part 1: Ecopath Technical Report. Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, SAMS report 294. 147  https://doi.org10.6084/m9.figshare.6323120.v1

Fox, C. (2018) Report on razor clam surveys in the Sound of Harris and the Ayrshire coast of the Clyde (Girvan to North Bay). Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science, Vol 9 No 3, 54 pp. https://http://dx.doi.org/10.7489/12054-1.

Burrows, M.T., Fox, C., Moore, P., Smale, D., Greenhill, L., Martino, S. & IMANI Consulting (2018) Wild seaweed harvesting as a diversification opportunity for fishermen. HIE Commissioned Report, pp 171.

Tett, P., Verspoor, E., Hunter, D-C., Coulson, M., Hicks, N., Davidson, K., Fernandes, T., Nickell, T., Tocher, D.R., Benjamins, S., Risch, D., Wilson, B., Wittich, A. & Fox, C. (2018) Review of the environmental impacts of salmon farming in Scotland. Report for the Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform (ECCLR) Committee. The Scottish Parliament, 196 pp.

Fox, C.J., Albalat, A. (2018) FIS015 - Post-catch survivability of discarded Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus): Further investigations within the large-scale fleet operation. Fisheries Innovation Scotland, 219 pp. ISBN: 978-1-911123-14-9.

Fox, C.J. (2017) To develop the methodology to undertake stock assessments on razor fish using combinations of video monitoring and electrofishing gear. Final report for Fishing Industry Science Alliance (FISA) Project 09/15. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Volume 8, Issue 6, Aberdeen, 97 pp.

Heath, M., Law, R., Searle, K., Cook, R., Speirs, D.C., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Hyder, K., Pinnegar, P., Thorpe, R., Diele, K., Campbell, N., Wright, P.A., Thorburn, J., Arthur, R., Macdonald, P., Fox, C., Heymans, S., Coull, K., Evans, P., Fenrandes, P., Hammond, P.S., Smout, S., Kolding, J., Reid, D. (2017) Scoping the background information for an ecosystem approach to fisheries in Scottish waters: Review of predator-prey interactions with fisheries, and balanced harvesting. Project report Fisheries Innovation Scotland: contract FIS013. 60 pp.

Fox, C., Macfadyen, G. & Cappell, R. (2016) Capture Fisheries. Commonwealth Blue Economy Series, Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 62 pp.

Fox, C.J., Valcic, L., Veszelovski, A. (2015) A pilot study to define the footprint and activities of Scottish inshore fisheries by identifying target fisheries, habitats and associated fish stocks. Evidence gathering in support of sustainable Scottish inshore fisheries. European Fisheries Fund (EFF) Inshore Fisheries Management, Work Package 4 Final Report SRS004SIF, SRSL, Oban, 193 pp.

Little, A., Bailey, N., Cook, R., Curtis, H., Fox, C., Heath, M., Marshall, T., Mouat, B., Fernandes, P. (2015) A review of Scotland's capture fisheries: stock status, knowledge gaps, research requirements and stakeholder engagement. Fisheries Innovation Scotland, 118 pp.

Black, K.D., Dale, A., Fox, C., Forster, I., Howe, J., Narayanaswamy, B. & Risch, D. (2015) A Review of Noble Energy Falklands Limited, Rhea-1 Exploration Well, Environmental Impact Statement V 2.0, 7th May 2015, 024-15-EHSR-EIS-PA-T4, SAMS, Oban, 16 pp.

Black, K.D., Dale, A.C., Forster, I., Fox, C., Howe, J., Hughes, D.J., Risch, D. (2014) A Review of Premier Oil 2015 Exploration Campaign Environmental Impact Statement (29/9/14), Document No: FK-BU-PMO-EV-REP-0003 for Falkland Islands Government, SRSL, 23 pp. Commercial in confidence

Fox, C.J., Lappalainen, M. (2014) Spring plankton surveys in the Firth of Lorn in 2009 - The distribution of fish eggs and larvae with notes on the importance of the area as a spawning and nursery habitat., SAMS Internal Report 283, 40 pp. doi:10.13140/2.1.1739.0089

Fox, C.J. (2014) A workshop to address the issues surrounding a discarding ban in the Scottish Nephrops MASTS Report, 37 pp. Available to download from MASTS website or from doi:10.13140/2.1.2661.2802

Fox, C.J. (2014) Issues around fisheries for small pelagic fish. A report prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 256 pp. Published as Fox CJ (2014) Issues around fisheries for small pelagic fish, SAMS Internal Reports 284, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, 260 pp. doi:10.13140/2.1.2396.1600

Cook, E.J., Davidson, K., Fox, C. and Black, K. (2013) Monitoring and eradication of invasive and non-native species in aquaculture units. Report by Scottish Association for Marine Science to the Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum. Tender Ref: SARF087. 39pp.

Fox, C.J. (2013) Natural Fish Populations Baseline Surveys for the Islay Offshore Wind Farm EIA, Scottish and Southern Energy Renewables (SSER).

Fox, C.J. (2013) Environmental Impact Assessment for Natural Fish Populations and Commercial Fish for the West Islay Tidal Energy Farm, DP Marine Energy Ireland Ltd.

Fox, C.J. & Beveridge, C. (2013) Jellyfish sampling and identification manual, Scottish Association for Marine Science and The Crown Estate, 86 pp.

Callaway, R., Shinn, A.P., Bron, J.E., Burnell, G., Cook, E.J., Cumlish, M., Culloty, S., Davidson, K., Ellis, R.P., Flynn, K.J., Fox, C., Green, D.M., Grenfell, S.E., Hayes, G., Hughes, A., Johnston, E., Lupatsch, I., Malham, S., Mendzil, A.F., Nickell, T., Pickerel, T., Rowley, A.F., Stanley, M., Tocher, D.R., Turnbull, J.F., Webb, G., Wooton, E., Sheilds, R. (2012). Climate change and aquaculture in the UK IN Marine Climate Change Report Card 2011. mccip.org.uk

Fox, C.J., Burrows, M.T., Black, K. & Alexander, K. (2012) A Scoping Study on Marine Bioresources for Food - An Update of the 2005, Science for Sustainable Marine Bioresources Report and further Consideration of Knowledge Exchange Opportunities in this Area of Research. NERC.80 pp.

Bailey, N., Bailey, D.M., Bellini, L.C., Fernandes, P.G., Fox, C., Heymans, S., Holmes, S., Howe, J., Hughes, S., Magill, S., McIntyre, F., McKee, D., Ryan, M.R., Smith, I.P., Tyldsely, G., Watret, R., Turrell, W.R. (2011) The West of Scotland Marine Ecosystem: A Review of Scientific Knowledge Marine Scotland Science Report  Scottish Government, Aberdeen, p 292

Black, K.D., Cottier, F., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Hughes, D.J., Forster, I. (2011) A Review of FOGL Exploration Drilling Environmental Impact Statement (Sept 2011), for The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 19.

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Hughes, D.J., Forster, I. (2011) A review of Exploration and Appraisal Drilling Environmental Impact Statement for PL001 (Argos Resources Limited, April 2011), for The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 16.

Edwards, M., Helaouet, P., Halliday, N., Beaugrand, G., Fox, C., Johns, D.G., Licandro, P., Lynam, C., Pitois, S., Stevens, D. and Coombs, S. (2011) Fish larvae atlas of the NE Atlantic. Results from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey 1948-2005. Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science. 22 pp.

SAMS Research Services – Shimmield, T., Black K., Fox, C.J., Hughes, D., Howe, J. (2011) Independent Evaluation of Deep-Sea Mine Tailings Placement (DSTP) in PNG8.ACP.PNG.18-B. A review and evaluation of marine environmental information on Deep Sea Tailings Placement with particular reference to Lihir and Misima mines, Papua New Guinea. 102 pp.

Albaina, A., Taylor, M. & Fox, C.J. (2010) Predation impact on juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in its nursery ground (Tralee Beach, Scotland); field application of a TaqMan real-time PCR based assay targeting plaice DNA. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. ICES CM 2010/C:06

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Hughes, D.J., Wilson, B., Shimmield, T.M. (2010) A Review of RPS Energy (Feb 2010): Environmental Impact Statement Borders and Southern Petroleum Plc Offshore Falkland Islands Exploration Drilling, (Licence PL018), for The Falkland Islands Government, SAMS, Oban, pp. 18

Combes, J., Nichols, J.H., Fox, C. & Keus, B. (2010) Ekofish Group - North Sea (ICES IVB) twin rigged otter trawl plaice fishery. Client group extension: Extraordinary risk assessment. Certificate No.:MML-F-065. (Moody International), 11 pp.

Combes, J., R. Capell, J. Nichols, Fox, C. & Keus, B. (2010) Surveillance Report Ekofish Group - North Sea (ICES IVB) twin rigged otter trawl plaice fishery Certificate No.: MML-F-065. Annual surveillance report, Moody International, 65 pp.

Fox, C. (2010) Conservation of small fish is good for marine ecology. Science, e-letters, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/eletters/326/5949/44-a#12798

Fox, C.J. (2010) West coast fishery trials of a twin rig Nephrops trawl incorporating a large mesh top sheet for reducing commercial species gadoid bycatch SISP Report 03, Aberdeen, 39 pp.

Nickell, T., Davidson, K., Fox, C. & Miller, P. (2010) Developing the capacity to monitor the spatial and temporal distributions of jellyfish in western Scottish waters. Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban. Report to the Crown Estate, 47 pp.

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Heymans, S.J.J., Hughes, D.J., Shimmield, T.M., Sherwin, T., Forster, I. (2009) A Review of RPS Energy : Environmental Impact Statement Offshore Falkland Islands Exploration Drilling (Licences 028 015) BHP Billiton Petroleum (Falklands) Corporation For The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 18.

Millner, R., Fox, C., Cappell, R. & Combes, J. (2010) Marine Stewardship Certification Assessment Report, Osprey Trawlers North Sea ICES IVb twin rigged plaice fishery: Certification Report 82116/v3

Black, K.D., Howe, J.A., Fox, C.J., Wilson, B., Heymans, S.J.J., Hughes, D.J., Shimmield, T.M., Sherwin, T., Forster, I., 2010. A Review of RPS Energy (Feb 2009): Environmental Impact Statement for Offshore Drilling Licenses PL006, PL007 and PL034 the Falkland Islands on Behalf of Desire Petroleum PLC and RPS Energy (Dec 2009): Environmental Impact Statement Addendum for Offshore Falkland Islands Drilling Programme (Licenses PL003, PL004, PL005, PL006 and PL034) for The Falkland Islands Government. SAMS, Oban, pp. 25.

Fox, C., Harris, R., Sundby, S., Achterberg, E., Allen, J.I., Allen, J., Baker, A. Brussaard, C.P.D., Buckley, P., Cook, E., Dye, S.R., Edwards, M., Fernand, L., Kershaw, P., Metcalfe, J., Østerhus, S., Potter, T., Sakshaug, E., Speirs, D., Stenevik, E., St. John, M., Thingstad, F., Wilson, B. (2009) Transregional linkages in the North-Eastern Atlantic - An ‘end-to-end ’ analysis of pelagic ecosystems. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 47, 1-75

Jackson, E. L., Langmead, O., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Miller, P., Fox, C., Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Saunders. J. (2009) Development of a marine diversity data layer: review of approaches and proposed method. Marine Biological Association of the UK, subcontracted by ABPMer, Southampton. Defra Contract No. MB102 Task 2F, Report No. 2.

Jackson, E.L., Langmead, O., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Miller, P., Fox, C., Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Saunders, J. (2009) Marine Biodiversity Hotspots. Report to the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs from the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN) Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the UK, subcontracted by ABPMer, Southampton. Defra Contract No. MB102 Task 2F, Report No. 2.

Metcalfe, J.D., Fox, C.J., Righton, D.A., Wright, P.J. & Casey, J. (2009) A review of the biological evidence for cod stock sub-structure in the North Sea. A working paper report from a joint CEFAS/FRS workshop for ICES. Cefas, 50 pp.

Nichols, J., Fox, C., Keus, B., Combes, J., Hough A. (2009) Marine Stewardship Certification Assessment Report, de Boer North Sea (ICES IVb) twin rigged otter trawl plaice fishery: Certification Report 82065v1

Fox C. (2007) North Sea cod egg surveys. In: Spatial structure of cod populations: What are the implications for the assessment and management of cod stocks? Mini-symposium eds. Crozier W, Heath M, Righton D), p. 47. Report to the UK Fisheries Laboratories Management Group of Directors, Belfast.

Taylor, N., Fox, C.J., Bolle, L., Dickey-Collas, M., Fossum, P., Kraus, G., Munk, P., Rolf, N., van Damme, C., Vorback, M. (2007) Spring plankton surveys of the North Sea in 2004: the distribution of eggs and larvae from the international ichthyoplankton survey. ICES Co-operative Report. No. 285, 60 pp, ices.dk/pubs/crr/crr285/CRR285.pdf

Fox, C.J. & Armstrong, M.J. (2007) Tracking fish populations by egg surveys. Fishing News, 20 April 2007, 9

Mills, D., Rees, J., Malcolm S., Fox, C., Edwards, M., Laane, R., Bot, P., Ridderinkhof, H., Colijn, F., Petersen, W., Schroeder, F., Johanneson, J., Svendsen, E. & Hacket, B. (2005) Towards a European marine ecosystem observatory (EMECO). European Marine Sciences Symposium

Fox, C.J., Taylor, M. Dickey-Collas, M. Bolle, L. Daan, N. Rohlf, N. Kraus, G. Munk, P. Fossum, P. & Bailey N. (2005) Initial results from the 2004 ichthyoplankton survey of the North Sea. ICES CM 2005/AA:04, ices.dk/products/CMdocs/2005/AA/AA0405.pdf

Fox, C.J., Armstrong, M.J. & Blanchard, J. (2005) Irish Sea cod In Spawning and Life History Information for North Atlantic cod Stocks, ICES Co-operative Research Report, 274, 62-75, ices.dk/pubs/crr/crr274/crr274.pdf

Blanchard, J., Heffernan, O.A. & Fox, C.J. (2005) North Sea cod In Spawning and Life History Information for North Atlantic cod Stocks. ICES Co-operative Research Report, 274, 76-88, ices.dk/pubs/crr/crr274/crr274.pdf

Daskalov, G.M., Kell, L.T. & Fox, C.J. (2004) Large scale environmental effects on recruitment of commercially exploited fish stocks in the North Atlantic. ICES CM 2004/M 16, ices.dk/products/CMdocs/2004/M/M-2004.pdf

Bunn, N. & Fox, C.J. (2004) Spring plankton surveys of the eastern Irish Sea in 2001, 2002 and 2003: Hydrography and the distribution of fish eggs and larvae. Science Series Data Report, 42, 214 pp, cefas.co.uk/Publications/files/datarep42.pdf

Bunn, N. & Fox, C.J.(2004) Spring plankton surveys of the Irish Sea in 2000: Hydrography and the distribution of fish eggs and larvae. Science Series Data Report, 41, 131 pp, cefas.co.uk/Publications/files/datarep41.pdf

Butterworth, D.S., Cochrane, K.L., Dunn, M., R. and Fox, C.J. (2004). International approaches to management of shared stocks: fisheries, management and external drivers. In: Management of shared fish stocks. Payne, A.I.L., O'Brien, C.M. and Rogers, S.I. (eds.) Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 348-355, Not available electronically

Garcia-Vazquez, E., Perez, J., Alvarez, P., Rico, C., Fox, C., Lopes, P., Teia, A., Karaiskou, N., Triantaphyllidis, A. & Triantaphyllidis, C. (2002) Genetic identification of fish by species-specific DNA markers for use in stock biomass assessments detection of commercial fraud. ICES CM 2002/U:02, 2 pp, ices.dk/products/CMdocs/2002/U/U-2002.PDF

Clark, R.A., Fox, C.J., Ben-Hamadou, R. and Planque, B. (2001) A directory of hydrographic and atmospheric datasets for the north east Atlantic and UK shelf seas. CEFAS, Science Series Technical Report, 113, 43 pp, cefas.co.uk/Publications/techrep/tech113.pdf

Bunn, N., Fox, C.J., & Webb, T. (2000) A literature review of studies on fish egg mortality: implications for the estimation of spawning stock biomass by the annual egg production method. Science Series Technical Report, 111, CEFAS, Lowestoft, 37 pp, cefas.co.uk/Publications/techrep/tech111.pdf

Fox, C.J., Milligan, S. P. & Holmes, A. J. (1999) Spring plankton surveys in the Blackwater Estuary, 1993-1997.  Science Series Technical Report, 109, CEFAS, Lowestoft, 51 pp, cefas.co.uk/Publications/techrep/tech109.pdf

Fox, C.J., Dickey-Collas, M. & Winpenny, A. J. (1997) Spring plankton surveys of the Irish Sea in 1995: The distribution of fish eggs and larvae. Science Series Technical Report, 104, CEFAS, Lowestoft,  106 pp, cefas.co.uk/Publications/techrep/tech104.pdf

Fox, C., Brown, J. H. & Briggs, M. (1994) The nutrition of prawns and shrimp in aquaculture - a review of recent research. In Recent Advances in Aquaculture V (J.F. Muir and R.J. Roberts eds.), pp. 131-206.  Blackwell Scientific, Not available electronically

Nichols, J. H., Haynes, G. M., Fox, C.J., Milligan, S. P., Brander, K. M. & Chapman, R. J. (1993) Spring plankton surveys of the Irish Sea in 1982, 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1989: hydrography and the distribution of fish eggs and larvae. Fisheries Research Technical Report, 95, Directorate of Fisheries Research, Lowestoft, 111 pp, cefas.co.uk/Publications/techrep/tech95.pdf

Selected conference presentations


Fox, C.J. (2020) Scotland’s experimental electrofishery for razor clams. MASTS Webinar series. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoEXutaWkMI


Bentley, J., Hines, D., Borrett, S., Serpetti, N., Fox, C., Reid, D., Heymans, S. (2018) Incorporating uncertainty analyses and fishers knowledge into the construction of ecosystem models. FSBI Annual Conference, University of East Anglia.

Hill, C., Fox, C., Serpetti, N., Heymans, J.J., Angus, C. (2018). Investigating impacts of the EU CFP landing obligation on the fishers of Shetland. How might this change with Brexit? FSBI Annual Conference, University of East Anglia.

Boswarva, K.L., Abernethy, C., Häussermann, V., Fox, C., Narawanaswamy, B., Howe, J.A. (2018) Habitat mapping the fjords of Chilean Patagonia using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles In: GEOHAB 2018

Fox, C.J. (2017) Fisheries as part of the Blue Economy. 2nd International Blue Economy Dialogue, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 22-23rd Nov, 2017, Invited address.

Rybicki, S., Sell, A. & Fox, C.J. (2016) The diversity of groundfish assemblages at different spatial scales in the North Sea – implications for future monitoring programs. North Sea Open Science Conference, Brussels, 7-10 Nov 2016, Poster. Nov 2016

Crocket, K., Abell, R., Brand, T. & Fox, C. (2016) New developments in trace metal analysis at SAMS: Automated preconcentration by SeaFAST. UHi Annual Science Conference, Poster

Albalat, A., Collard, A., Coates, C., McAdam, B. & Fox, C. (2016) FIS07: Post-catch survivability of discarded Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus): Towards a regional and ecosystems-based approach. Annual Scottish Fisheries Conference, 23-24 Aug 2016, St Andrews, Scotland. Oral presentation.

Fox, C., Morton, C. & Boswarva, K. (2016) Are marinas leading to jellyfish blooms? Fifth International Jellyfish Blooms Conference, Barcelona, May 2016. Oral presentation.

Crocket, K., Abell, R., Brand, T. & Fox, C. (2016) New developments in seawater trace metal analysis at SAMS: Automated preconcentration by seaFAST. MASTS Marine Stressors meeting, Feb 2016, Poster

Albalat, A. Collard, A., Coates, C., McAdam, B. & Fox C. (2015) Post-catch survivability of discarded Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus): Towards a regional and ecosystems-based approach. MASTS Annual Science meeting, 1st Oct 2015, Oral presentation

Fox, C.J. (2015) Impact of the landings obligation on the Scottish Nephrops trawl sector. Coastal Futures Conference, London, 23rd Jan 2015. Oral presentation

Fox, C.J. (2014) Impact of the landings obligation on the Scottish Nephrops trawl sector. MASTS Annual Science Conference, Edinburgh, 4th Sept 2014. Oral presentation

Zölck, M., Minto, C., Brophy, D., Fox, C. & McGrath, D. (2012) Examining spatial variation in growth patterns of Irish Sea plaice using an extended double logistic model. ICES CM 2012/J

Höffle, H., van Damme Cindy J. G., Fox, C.J. & Munk, P. (2012) Fish Eggs and Larvae in the North Sea – hydrographic and spatial controls on distribution. ASLO Ocean Science Conference, Salt Lake City, 20-24 February, Oral presentation

Pliru, A., van der Kooij, Jerouen, Engelhard, G.H., Fox, C.J., Milligan, S.P. & Hunter, E. (2011) Is recruitment of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Irish Sea constrained by predation of eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus)? ICES Annual Science Conference CM/H:33

Zölck, M., Brophy, D., Fox, C.J., McGrath, D., Minto, C. (2011) Characterising plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) nursery grounds using otolith microstructure and microchemical signatures. 8th International Flatfish Symposium, Nov. 2011, Oral presentation

Albaina, A., Taylor, M.I., Taylor, N. & Fox, C. (2008) First steps in order to quantify predation on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) nursery grounds using molecular markers, 7th International Flatfish Symposium, Nov. 2008, Oral presentation

Ciotti, B., Targett, T., Nash, R.D.M., Batty, R., Burrows, M., Geffen, A. & Fox, C.J. (2008) Spatial and temporal growth dynamics of juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in West Scotland and the Irish Sea: an assessment using a nucleic acid based assay, 7th International Flatfish Symposium, Nov. 2008, Oral presentation

Damme, C.J.G. van, Bolle, L.J., Fox, C.J., Fossum, P., Kraus, G., Munk, P., Rohlf, N., Witthames, P. and Dickey-Collas, M. (2008) Can the Annual Egg Production method tell us more about stock dynamics than the traditional stock assessment? A worked example of North Sea plaice. ICES Annual Science Conference and 7th International Flatfish Symposium, Nov. 2008,, Oral presentation

Pitois, S. G., & Fox, C. J. (2007) Have climate induced changes in zooplankton community led to poor conditions for larval fish growth? A test on cod larvae on the UK shelf. 4th International Symposium on Zooplankton Production, June 2007, Hiroshima, Japan. Talk

Goodsir, F., Fox, C., Armstrong, M., Milligan, S., Shaw, M., Godard, M. & Creach, V. (2007) Can formaldehyde fixed gadoid eggs be identified using genetic probes? ICES Annual Science Conference, Q:23, Sept 2007, Helsinki, Finland. Poster

Goodsir, F., Fox, C., Armstrong, M., Stone, D., Schön, P., Taylor, N., Taylor, M. & Godard, M. (2007) Using genetic probes to identify gadoid eggs in surveys to monitor the Irish Sea cod stock under the EU recovery program. ICES Annual Science Conference, Q:24, Sept 2007, Helsinki, Finland. Poster

Armstrong, M., Fox, C., Gerritsen, H., Goodsir, F., Greenwood, L., Milligan, S., Prael, A., Schön, P., Taylor, N. & Withames, P. (2007) Developing an egg-survey approach to monitoring the biomass of cod and other demersal fish species in the Irish Sea. ICES Annual Science Conference, Q:25, Sept 2007, Helsinki, Finland. Poster

Expert advice to regulators / government

MASTS Fisheries Steering Committee; Regional Inshore Fisheries Committee; Scottish Marine Energy Research (ScotMER); Communities Inshore Fisheries Alliance; UHI Ethics and AWEC Committees; ICES WGEASS; ICES WGELECTRA


Public /media engagement


Fox, C. (2022) Consultancy response on Marine Stewardship Standards Review


Heath, M. Fox, C. et al. (2022) Consultancy response to Scottish Government Clyde cod spawing protection measures.

Fox, C. (2021) Do fishing quotas need more scrutiny? https://www.sams.ac.uk/news/sams-news-fishing-quota-blog-.html

Fox C. (part contribution) (2017) 'Huge danger' over-fishing will destroy fragile stocks. In: The Herald, 21 June 2017.

Fox, C.J. (2017) Talks on Radio Scotland about razor clam fishing. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08m8tjf#play April 15 programme from 35:20 http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b08n1yr3#play April 22 programme from 12:30

Blog interview with David McCormack (2017) http://www.mccormack-online.com/clive-fox/


Brexit vote has led to considerable uncertainty over the future of marine management and science in UK waters. MEAM and MPA News; Dec 2016 (10:3).

Ciotti, B., Burrows, M.T., Fox, C.J., Targett, T.E. (2014) What makes a good nursery ground? New answers, and more questions, after a decade of collaborative research on YOY plaice. Newsletter of the Early Life History Section of the American Fisheries Society, 35, 3

Fox, C.J. (2014) Hold that cod – the North Sea fish controversy isn’t over yet. The Conversation

Blog interview with David McCormack (2017)

Journal reviewer (selected)

Frontiers in Marine Science

Marine Policy

Proceedings of the Royal Society

Marine Ecology Progress Series

Journal of Plankton Research

Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science

Fisheries Oceanography

Fisheries Research

Journal of Plankton Research

Marine Ecology Progress Series


Project reviewer


UK Defra


EU EurOceans

Chilean Marine Science Board


Peer review college

Marine Stewardship Council


National and international representation

Scottish Offshore Renewables Research Framework (SpoRRan) – Fish and Fisheries Specialist Receptor Group

Marine Alliance Science Technology Scotland Fisheries Sub-committee

Defra HBDSEG Fish and Cephalopods Expert Advisory Group

EU Joint Research Council Expert Group on Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (2012)

Argyll & Bute Fisheries Local Action Group (FLAG) Panel (from 2012)

NERC Peer Review College (till 2011)

Scottish Industry Science Partnership Advisory Pane

Chair of the ICES North Sea Ichthyoplankton Planning Group (till Dec 2008)

Shelf Seas co-ordinator, European Network of Excellence EUROCEANS (till Dec 2008)


Employment history

Since Oct 2014: Senior Lecturer Fisheries Ecology. SAMS

2007-2014: Lecturer Fisheries Ecology. SAMS

1992-2007: Higher / Senior Scientific Officer. CEFAS

1990-1992: PostDoc. Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling



1990 PhD Marine Biochemistry. University of Stirling

1985 BSc Marine Biology (first class). University of Liverpool