Dr Helena Reinardy

        Dr Helena Reinardy holding sea urchin on her hand in the Arctic

PI and Teaching Fellow/Researcher in Aquaculture

A marine biologist and ecotoxicologist researching the changing marine environment, such as increasing temperatures, altered pH, and presence of pollutants and the complex effects on aquatic organisms (fish, echinoderms, zooplankton) from epi- genetics, molecular toxicology, physiology, reproduction, growth, and survival.

I co-lead the Dynamic Coasts research area at SAMS.

Contact details:

Dr Helena Reinardy is a marine biologist and ecotoxicologist with extensive experience in biology of fish and marine invertebrates applied to various industries such as aquaculture, fisheries, environmental risk and safety, industrial waste management, and regulatory toxicology.

For the last 10 years, she has researched the complex interaction between organisms and their every changing environment. The current changes that are occurring the marine environment include climatic shifts such as increasing temperatures, reduction in pH, altered oxygen content, and presence of contaminants and pollutants. Combined, these multiple-level stressors affect organisms in the ocean, and their responses can determine susceptibility to disease, adaptive evolution, and long-term species resilience to changing environmental conditions. Helena has experience with a range of environmentally-relevant contaminants and stressors with projects into effects of oil, metals, radionuclides, pharmaceuticals, mutagens and carcinogens, nanoparticles, mine tailings waste, ocean acidification, and thermal stress. Helena applies a range of effects measurement spanning genetic and epigenetic levels changes to molecular toxicology, physiology, behaviour, reproduction, and survival.

Her research has both pure and applied angles and she works closely with partners and stakeholders from industry, governmental regulators, and national and international research sectors to understand environmental situations of concern.

Helena’s current post involves teaching aquaculture to undergraduate and graduate students, and conducting and developing research collaborations. In addition, she is affiliated to the University Centre in Svalbard as an adjunct Associate Professor in the Arctic Technology Department and supports research and education initiatives in environmental toxicology and chemistry.


List of current research projects

Salmon parasite interactions in Linnhe, Lorn, and Shuna (SPILLS): Funded by Crown Estate Scotland. Oct 2020-Dec 2022. We are leading Work Package 2 and contribute to Work Packages 1, 3 and 4 

ExPANDin2 the future: Realising the full potential of the Scottish walmon industry. Funded by SAIC and SSPO. May 2021 - Apr 2024. Project lead by SAMS

Cumulative impact of multiple stressors in High North ecosystems (CLEAN): Funded by Fram Centre, Norway. 2022-26. 


Important past projects

ExPAND: Expanding environments, physics and accuracy in NewDEPOMOD. Funded by SAIC and SSPO. 2018-21

Heritable effects in ecotoxicology: integrating epigenetics into genotoxicology. Funded by UK Environmental Mutagen Society UKEMS. 2020-21

Ocean acidification state and drivers in Arctic Waters. Funded by Fram Centre, Norway. 2018-21 (ungoing - but now unfunded)

Sensitivity of polar cod early life stages to a changing Arctic: a study of the impact of petroleum and warming (Sens2change). Funded by Fram Centre, Norway. 2018-2 (ongoing - but now unfunded)

Peer-reviewed publications


Liu F, Last KS, Henry TB, Reinardy HC (2022) Interspecific differences in oxidative DNA damage after hydrogen perioxide exposure of sea urchin coelomocytes. Mutagenesishttps://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/geac018

Sandberg, M.C., Daae, R.L., Djuve, H.K., Broch, O.J., Nøst, O.A., Hagen, L., Pedersen, A.I., Austad, M., Nergaard, B.O., Reinardy, H.C., and Wilding, T.A. in prep. Evaluating deposition models as predictive tools for estimating benthic ecosystem impact beneath Atlantic salmon farms.

Pederson, P.B., Maréchal, J.Y.A., Lejon, T., Frantzen, M., and Reinardy, H.C. in prep. The effect of geochemical variables and temperature on leaching of metals from submarine mine tailings disposal in Repparfjorden, Norway.

De Miguel-Jiménez, L., Bilbao, D., Prieto, A., Reinardy, H.C., Lekube, X., Izagirre, U., and Marigómez, I. in prep. The influence of temperature in sea urchin embryo toxicity of crude and bunker oils alone and mixed with dispersant.

De Miguel-Jiménez, L., Etxebarria, N., Reinardy, H.C., Lekube, X., Marigómez, I., and Izagirre, U. in press Marine Pollution Bulletin. Toxicity to sea urchin embryos of crude and bunker oils weathered under ice alone and mixed with dispersant.

Imsland, A.K.D., Purvis, E., Reinardy, H.C., and Hangstad, T.A. 2022. The effects of cryogenically preserved sperm on the fertilization, embryonic development and hatching success of lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus. Aquaculture 547:737466

De Fonseka, R., Fjelldal, P.G., Sambrus, F., Nilsen, T.O., Remø, S.C., Stien, L.H., Reinardy, H.C., Madaro, A., Hansen, T.J., and Fraser, T.W.K. 2022. Triploidy leads to a mismatch of smoltification biomarkers I the fill and differences in the optimal salinity for post-smolt growth in Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 546:737350



Halsband, C., Dix, M.F., Hopland Sperre, K., Hendriks, I., and Reinardy, H.C. 2021. Reduced pH increases mortality and genotoxicity in an Arctic coastal copepod, Acartia longiremis. Aquatic Toxicology 239:105961

Bender, M.L., Giebichenstein, J., Teisrud, R.N., Laurent, J., Frantzen, M., Meador, J., Sørensen, L., Hansen, B.H., Reinardy, H.C., Laurel, B., Nahrgang, J. 2020. Combined effects of crude oil exposure and warming on eggs and larvae of an Arctic forage fish. Scientific Reports 11:8410.



Drotikova, T., Ali, A.M., Halse, A.K., Reinardy, H.C., Kallenborn, R. 2020. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy- and nitro-PAHs in ambient air of the Arctic town Longyearbyen, Svalbard. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20:9997-10014. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-142 

Adams, T.P., Black, K., Black, K., Carpenter, T., Hughes, A., Reinardy, H.C., Weeks, R.J. 2020. Parameterising resuspension in aquaculture waste deposition modelling. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 12:401-415. https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00372 

Frantzen, M., Bytingsvik, J., Tassara, L., Reinardy, H.C., Refseth, G.H., Watts, E.J., and Evenset, A. 2020. Effects of the sea lice bath treatment pharmaceuticals hydrogen peroxide, azamethiphos and deltamethrin on egg-carrying shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Marine Environmental Research. 159, 105007.



Reinardy, H.C., Pedersen, K.B., Nahrgang, J., Frantzen, M. 2019. Effects of mine tailings exposure on early life stages of Atlantic cod. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 38(7) 1446-1454.



Pedersen, K.B., Reinardy, H.C., Jensen, P.E., Ottosen, L.M., Junttila, J., Frantzen, M. 2018. The influence of Magnafloc10 on the acidic, alkaline, and electrodialytic desorption of metals from mine tailings. Journal of Environmental Management. 224:130-139.



Emerson, C.E., Reinardy, H.C., Bates, N., and Bodnar, A.G. 2017. Ocean acidification impacts spine integrity but not regenerative capacity of spines and tube feet in adult sea urchins. Royal Society Open Science 4:170140.

Aguirre-Martinez, G.V., Reinardy, H.C., Martin-Diaz, M.L., and Henry, T.B. 2017, Response of gene expression in zebrafish exposed to pharmaceutical mixtures: Implications for environmental risk. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 142:471-479.



Reinardy, H.C., Chapman, J., and Bodnar, A.G. 2016. Induction of innate immune gene expression following methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in sea urchins. Biology Letters 12(2):20151057



Reinardy, H.C., Emerson, C.E., Manley, J.M., and Bodnar, A.G. 2015. Tissue regeneration and biomineralization in sea urchins: role of Notch signaling and presence of stem cell markers. PLoS ONE 10(8) e0133860.

Reinardy, H.C. and Bodnar, A.G. 2015 Profiling DNA damage and repair capacity in sea urchin coelomocytes and larvae exposed to genotoxicants. Mutagenesis, 30(6): 829-839. DOI:10.1093/mutage/gev052.



El-Bibany, A.H., Bodnar, A.G., and Reinardy, H.C. 2014. Comparative DNA damage and repair in echinoderms exposed to genotoxicants. PLoS ONE 9(9) e107815.



Scarlett, A., Reinardy, H.C., West, C., Henry, T.B., and Rowland, S. 2013. Acute toxicity of aromatic and non-aromatic fractions of naphthenic acids extracted from oil sands process-affected water to larval zebrafish. Chemosphere. 93(2):415-420.

Reinardy, H.C., Scarlett, A., West, C., Rowland, S., and Henry, T.B. 2013. Aromatic naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water, resolved by GCxGC-MS, only weakly induce the gene for vitellogenin production in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Environmental Science and Technology. 47(12):6614-6620.

Reinardy, H.C., Dharamshi, J., Jha, A.N., Henry, T.B. 2013. Changes in expression profile of genes associated with DNA repair following induction of DNA damage in larval zebrafish Danio rerio. Mutagenesis. 28(5)601-608.

Reinardy, H.C., Skippins, E., Henry, T.B., Jha, A.N. 2013. Assessment of DNA damage in sperm after repeated non-invasive sampling in zebrafish Danio rerio. Journal of Fish Biology. 82: 1074-1081

Reinardy, H.C., Syrett, J., Jeffree, R., Jha, A., Henry, T. 2013. Cobalt-induced genotoxicity in male zebrafish (Danio rerio), with implications for reproduction and expression of DNA repair genes. Aquatic Toxicology. 126: 224-230.



Reinardy, H.C., Teyssie, J-L., Jeffree, R.A., Copplestone, D., Henry, T.B., Jha, A.N. 2011. Uptake, depuration, and radiation dose estimation in zebrafish exposed to radionuclides via aqueous or dietary routes. Science of the Total Environment. 409: 3771-3779.

Fraser, T.W.K., Reinardy, H. C., Shaw, B.J., Henry, T.B., Handy, R. 2011. Dietary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes and fullerenes (C60) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nanotoxicology. 5(1): 98-108.


Pre 2011

Wells, A., Grierson, C.E., Marshall, L., MacKenzie, M., Russon, I.J., Reinardy, H., Sivertsgard, R., Bjorn, P.A., Finstad, B., Bonga, S.E.W., Todd, C.D. and Hazon, N. 2007. Physiological consequences of “premature freshwater return” for wild sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) postsmolts infested with sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 64(10): 1360-1369.

Wells, A., Grierson, C.E., MacKenzie, M., Russon, I.J., Reinardy, H., Middlemiss, C., Bjorn, P.A., Finstad, B., Bonga, S.E.W., Todd, C.D. and Hazon, N. 2006. Physiological effects of simultaneous, abrupt seawater entry and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation of wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 63(12): 2809-2821.

Todd, C.T., Stevenson, R.J., Reinardy, H. & Ritchie, M.G. 2005. Polyandry in the ectoparasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis despite complex precopulatory and postcopulatory mate-guarding. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 303: 225 – 234.

SAMS UHI courses / modules

BSc Marine Science with Arctic Studies: Degree stream lead

BSc Marine Science - Marine Pollution: Module leader

BSc Marine Science - Aquaculture: Module leader

BSc Marine Science - Marine Resources: Lecturer

BSc Marine Science - Marine Chemistry: Lecturer

BSc Marine Science - Polar Seas: Lecturer


MSc Aquaculture, Environment and Society PLUS: Deputy Progrm Lead

MSc Aquaculture, Environment and Society PLUS - Overview of Global Aquaculture: Module leader


Teaching on external programmes

Adjunct guest lecturer, UNIS


Other teaching responsibilities

NTNU EnvitTox program committee member

Senior Fellow HEA

UHI ALPINE (HEA membership process) panel member


Current research students

Fengjia Liu: Ecotoxicological implications of environmental chemical discharge on marine invertebrate organisms. PhD student. University of the Highlands and Islands. 2019-23

Angus Taylor: Multistressor impacts of coean acidification and warming on regenerations and biomineralisation in coastal sea urchins. PhD student. University of the Highlands and Islands. 2021-25

Employment history

Since 2018 Teaching Fellow / Researcher in Aquaculture. SAMS

2018-present Adjunct Associate Professor. University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS)

2017-18 Associate Professor. UNIS

2015-17 Postdoctoral Scientist. UNIS

2012-15. Postdoctoral Scientist. Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences



2012 PhD 'Relating genotoxicity to DNA repair and reproductive success in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to environmental toxicants'. Plymouth University

2008 MRes Applied Fish Biology. Plymouth University

2005 BSc (Hons) Marine and Environmental Biology. University of St Andrews


Professional Memberships

UK and European Mutagen Society


Royal Society of Biology





Aq Tox




Invert Repro Dev

Mutat Res